Memoirs Of Mr. Hempher, The British
Spy To The Middle East is the title
of a document that was published in series
(episodes) in the German paper Spiegel and
later on in a prominent French paper. A
Lebanese doctor translated the document to
the Arabic language and from there on it was
translated to English and other languages.
Waqf Ikhlas publications put out and
circulated the document in English in hard
copy and electronically under the title:
Confessions of a British spy and British
enmity against Islam. This document
reveals the true background of the Wahhabi
movement which was innovated by Mohammad bin
abdul Wahhab and explains the numerous
falsehood they spread in the name of Islam
and exposes their role of enmity towards the
religion of Islam and towards prophet
Mohammad sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam and
towards Muslims at large. No wonder the
Wahhabis today stand as the backbone of
terrorism allowing and financing and
planning shedding the blood of Muslims and
other innocent people. Their well known
history of terrorism as documented in
Fitnatul Wahhabiyyah by the mufti of Makkah,
Sheikh Ahmad Zayni Dahlan, and their current
assassinations and contravention is due to
their ill belief that all are blasphemers
save themselves. May Allah protect our
nation from their evils.
Our Great Britain is very vast. The sun
rises over its seas, and sets, again, below
its seas. Our State is relatively weak yet
in its colonies in India, China and Middle
East. These countries are not entirely under
our domination. However, we have been
carrying on a very active and successful
policy in these places. We shall be in full
possession of all of them very soon. Two
things are of importance:
1- To try to retain the places we have
2- To try to take possession of those places
we have not obtained yet.
The Ministry of Colonies assigned a
commission from each of the colonies for the
execution of these two tasks. As soon as I
entered the Ministry of Colonies, the
Minister put his trust in me and appointed
me the administrator of the company of East
India. Outwardly it was a company of trade.
But its real task was to search for ways of
taking control of the very vast lands of
Our government was not at all nervous about
India. India was a country where people from
various nationalities, speaking different
languages, and having contrasting interests
lived together. Nor were we afraid of China.
For the religions dominant in China were
Buddhism and Confucianism, neither of which
was much of a threat. Both of them were dead
religions that instituted no concern for
life and which were no more than forms of
addresses. For this reason, the people
living in these two countries were hardly
likely to have any feelings of patriotism.
These two countries did not worry us, the
British government. Yet the events that
might occur later were not out of
consideration for us. Therefore, we were
designing long term plans to wage discord,
ignorance, poverty, and even diseases in
these countries. We were imitating the
customs and traditions of these two
countries, thus easily concealing our
What frazzled our nerves most was the
Islamic countries. We had already made some
agreements, all of which were to our
advantage, with the Sick Man (the Ottoman
Empire). Experienced members of the Ministry
of Colonies predicted that this sick man
would pass away in less than a century. In
addition, we had made some secret agreements
with the Iranian government and placed in
these two countries statesmen whom we had
made masons. Such corruptions as bribery,
incompetent administration and inadequate
religious education, which in its turn led
to busying with pretty women and
consequently to neglect of duty, broke the
backbones of these two countries. In spite
of all these, we were anxious that our
activities should not yield the results we
expected, for reasons I am going to cite
1- Muslims are extremely devoted to Islam.
Every individual Muslims is as strongly
attached to Islam as a priest or monk to
Christianity, if not more. As it is known,
priests and monks would rather die than give
up Christianity. The most dangerous of such
people are the Shiites in Iran. For they put
down people who are not Shiites as
disbelievers and foul people. Christians are
like noxious dirt according to Shiites.
Naturally, one would do one's best to get
rid of dirt. I once asked a Shiite this: Why
do you look on Christians as such? The
answer I was given was this: "The Prophet of
Islam was a very wise person. He put
Christians under a spiritual oppression in
order to make them find the right way by
joining Allah's religion, Islam. As a matter
of fact, it is a State policy to keep a
person found dangerous under a spiritual
oppression until he pledges obedience. The
dirt I am speaking about is not material; it
is a spiritual oppression which is not
peculiar to Christians alone. It involves
Sunnites and all disbelievers. Even our
ancient Magian Iranian ancestors are foul
according to Shiites."
I said to him: "Well! Sunnites and
Christians believe in Allah, in Prophets,
and in the Judgment Day, too; why should
they be foul, then?" He replied, "They are
foul for two reasons: They impute mendacity
to our Prophet, Hadrat Muhammad may Allah
protect us against such an act! (1)* And we,
in response to this atrocious imputation,
follow the rule expressed in the saying, If
a person torments you, you can torment him
in return', and say to them: 'You are foul.'
Second; Christians make offensive
allegations about the Prophets of Allah. For
instance, they say: Isaa (Jesus)
'alaihis-salaam' would take (hard) drinks.
Because he was accursed, he was crucified."
In consternation, I said to the man that
Christians did not say so. "Yes, they do,"
was the answer, "and you don't know. It is
written so in the Holy Bible." I became
quite. For the man was right in the first
respect, if not in the second respect. I did
not want to continue the dispute any longer.
Otherwise they might be suspicious of me in
an Islamic attire as I was. I therefore
avoided such disputes.
2- Islam was once a religion of
administration and authority. And Muslims
were respected. It would be difficult to
tell these respectable people that they are
slaves now. Nor would it be possible to
falsify the Islamic history and say to
Muslims: The honor and respect you obtained
at one time was the result of some
(favorable) conditions. Those days are gone
now, and they will never come back.
3- We were very anxious that the Ottomans
and Iranians might notice our plots and foil
them. Despite the fact that these two States
had already been debilitated considerably,
we still did not feel certain because they
had a central government with property,
weaponry, and authority.
4- We were extremely uneasy about the
Islamic scholars. For the scholars of
Istanbul and Al-adh-har, the Iraqi and
Damascene scholars were insurmountable
obstacles in front of our purposes. For they
were the kind of people who would never
compromise their principles to the tiniest
extent because they had turned against the
transient pleasures and adornments of the
world and fixed their eyes on the Paradise
promised by Qur'aan al-kereem. The people
followed them. Even the Sultan was afraid of
them. Sunnites were not so strongly adherent
to scholars as were Shiites. For Shiites did
not read books; they only recognized
scholars, and did not show due respect to
the Sultan. Sunnites, on the other hand,
read books, and respected scholars and the
We therefore prepared a series of
conferences. Yet each time we tried we saw
with disappointment that the road was closed
for us. The reports we received from our
spies were always frustrating, and the
conferences came to naught. We did not give
up hope, though. For we are the sort of
people who have developed the habit of
taking a deep breath and being patient.
The Minister himself, the highest priestly
orders, and a few specialists attended one
of our conferences. There were twenty of us.
Our conference lasted three hours, and the
final session was closed without reaching a
fruitful conclusion. Yet a priest said, "Do
not worry! For the Messiah and his
companions obtained authority only after a
persecution that lasted three hundred years.
It is hoped that, from the world of the
unknown, he will cast an eye on us and grant
us the good luck of evicting the
unbelievers, (he means Muslims), from their
centers, be it three hundred years later.
With a strong belief and long-term patience,
we must arm ourselves! In order to obtain
authority, we must take possession of all
sorts of media, try all possible methods. We
must try to spread Christianity among
Muslims. It will be good for us to realize
our goal, even if it will be after
centuries. For fathers work for their
A conference was held, and diplomats and
religious men from Russia and France as well
as from England attended. I was very lucky.
I, too, attended because I and the Minister
were in very good terms. In the conference,
plans of breaking Muslims into groups and
making them abandon their faith and bringing
them round to belief (Christianizing them)
like in Spain was discussed. Yet the
conclusions reached were not as had been
expected. I have written all the talks held
in that conference in my book "Ilaa
It is difficult to suddenly uproot a tree
that has sent out its roots to the depths of
the earth. But we must make hardships easy
and overcome them. Christianity came to
spread. Our Lord the Messiah promised us
this. The bad conditions that the east and
the west were in, helped Muhammad. Those
conditions being gone, have taken away the
nuisances (he means Islam) that accompanied
them. We observe with pleasure today that
the situation has changed completely. As a
result of great works and endeavors of our
ministry and other Christian governments
Muslims are on the decline now. Christians,
on the other hand, are gaining ascendancy.
It is time we retook the places we lost
throughout centuries. The powerful State of
Great Britain pioneers this blessed task [of
In the Hijree year 1122, C.E. 1710, the
Minister of Colonies sent me to Egypt, Iraq,
Hidjaz and Istanbul to act as a spy and to
obtain information necessary and sufficient
for the breaking up of Muslims. The Ministry
appointed nine more people, full of agility
and courage, for the same mission and at the
same time. In addition to the money,
information and maps we would need, we were
given a list containing names of statesmen,
scholars, and chiefs of tribes. I can never
forget! When I said farewell to the
secretary, he said, "The future of our State
is dependent on your success. Therefore you
should exert your utmost energy."
I set out on a voyage to Istanbul, the
center of the Islamic caliphate. Besides my
primary duty, I was to learn very well
Turkish, the native language of the Muslims
being there. I had already learned in London
a considerable amount of Turkish, Arabic
(the language of the Qur'aan) and Persian,
the Iranian language. Yet learning a
language was quite different from speaking
that language like its native speakers.
While the former skill can be acquired in a
matter of a few years, the latter requires a
duration of time several times as long as
this. I had to learn Turkish with all its
subtleties lest the people should suspect
I was not anxious that they should suspect
me. For Muslims are tolerant, open-hearted,
benevolent, as they have learnt from their
Prophet Muhammad 'alai-his-salaam'. They are
not skeptical like us. After all, at that
time the Turkish government did not have an
organization to arrest spies.
After a very tiresome voyage I arrived in
Istanbul. I said my name was Muhammad and
began to go to the mosque, Muslims' temple.
I liked the way Muslims observed discipline,
cleanliness and obedience. For a moment I
said to myself: Why are we fighting these
innocent people? Is this what our Lord the
Messiah advised us? But I at once recovered
from this diabolical [!] thought, and
decided to carry out my duty in the best
In Istanbul I met an old scholar named
"Ahmed Efendi." With his elegant manners,
open-heartedness, spiritual limpidity, and
benevolence, none of our religious men I had
seen could have equalled him. This person
endeavored day and night to make himself
like the Prophet Muhammad. According to him,
Muhammad was the most perfect, the highest
man. Whenever he mentioned his name his eyes
would become wet. I must have been very
lucky, for he did not even ask who I was or
where I was from. He would address me as
"Muhammad Efendi." He would answer my
questions and treat me with tenderness and
with compassion. For he considered me a
guest who had come to Istanbul to work in
Turkey and to live in the shadow of the
Khaleefa, the representative of the Prophet
Muhammad. Indeed, this was the pretext I
used to stay in Istanbul
One day I said to Ahmed Efendi: "My parents
are dead. I don't have any brothers or
sisters, and I haven't inherited any
property. I came to the center of Islam to
work for a living and to learn Qur'aan
al-kereem and the Sunnat, that is, to earn
both my worldly needs and my life in the
Hereafter." He was very delighted with these
words of mine, and said, "You deserve to be
respected for these three reasons." I am
writing down exactly what he said:
"1- You are a Muslim. All Muslims are
2- You are a guest. Rasoolullah
'sall-allaahu alaihi wa sallam' declared:
'Offer kind hospitality to your guests!'
3- You want to work. There is a hadeeth-i
shereef stating that 'a person who works is
beloved to Allah.' "
These words pleased me very much. I said to
myself, "Would that there were such bright
truths in Christianity, too! It's a shame
there aren't any." What surprised me was the
fact that Islam, such a noble religion as it
was, was being degenerated in the hands of
these conceited people who were quite
unaware of what was going on in life.
I said to Ahmed Efendi that I wanted to
learn Qur'aan al-kereem. He replied that he
would teach me with pleasure, and began to
teach me (Faatiha soora). He would explain
the meanings as we read. I had great
difficulty pronouncing some words. In two
years' time I read through the whole Qur'aan
al-kereem. Before each lesson he would make
ablution himself and also command me to make
ablution. He would sit towards the qibla
(Ka'ba) and then begin teaching.
What Muslims call ablution consisted of a
series of washings, as follows:
1) Washing the face;
2) Washing the right arm from fingers to
3) Washing the left arm from fingers to
4) Making masah of (moistening both hands
and rubbing them gently on) the head, backs
of ears, (back of) neck;
5) Washing both feet.
Having to use the miswaak vexed me very
much. "Miswaak" is a twig with which they
(Muslims) clean their mouth and teeth. I
thought this piece of wood was harmful for
the mouth and teeth. Sometimes it would hurt
my mouth and cause bleeding. Yet I had to
use it. For, according to them, using the
"miswaak" was a muakkad sunnat of the
Prophet. They said this wood was very
useful. Indeed, the bleeding of my teeth
came to an end. And the foul breath that I
had till that time, and which most British
people have, was gone.
During my stay in Istanbul I spent the
nights in a room I had rented from a man
responsible for the service in a mosque.
This servant's name was "Marwaan Efendi".
Marwaan is the name of one of the Sahaaba
(Companions) of the Prophet Muhammad. The
servant was a very nervous man. He would
boast about his name and tell me that if I
should have a son in the future I should
"name him Marwaan, because Marwaan is one of
Islam's greatest warriors."
"Marwaan Efendi" would prepare the evening
dinner. I would not go to work on Friday, a
holiday for Muslims. On the other days of
the week I worked for a carpenter named
Khaalid, being paid on a weekly basis.
Because I worked part time, from morning
till noon, that is, he would give me half
the wage he gave the other employees. This
carpenter would spend much of his free time
telling about the virtues of "Khaalid bin
Waleed." Khaalid bin Waleed, one of the
Sahaaba of the Prophet Muhammad, is a great
mujaahid (a warrior for Islam). He
accomplished various Islamic conquests. Yet
his (Khaalid bin Waleed's) dismissal from
office by 'Umar bin Hattaab during the
latter's caliphate chafed the carpenter's
"Khaalid", the carpenter for whom I worked,
was an immoral and extremely neurotic
person. He somehow trusted me very much. I
do not know why, but perhaps it was because
I always obeyed him. He ignored the
Sharee'at (Islaam's commandments) in his
secret manners. Yet when he was with his
friends he would display obedience to the
commandments of the Sharee'at. He would
attend the Friday prayers, but I am not sure
about the other (daily) prayers.
I would have breakfast in the shop. After
work I would go to the mosque for noon
prayer and would stay there till afternoon
prayer. After the afternoon prayer I would
go to Ahmed Efendi's place, where he would
teach me such lessons as (reading) Qur'aan
al-kereem, Arabic and Turkish languages for
two hours. Every Friday I would give him my
weekly earnings because he taught me very
well. Indeed, he taught me very well how to
read Qur'aan al-kereem, requirements of the
Islamic religion and the subtleties of
Arabic and Turkish languages.
When "Ahmed Efendi" knew that I was single,
he wanted to marry me to one of his
daughters. I refused his offer. But he
insisted, saying that marriage is a sunnat
of the Prophet's and the Prophet had stated
that "A person who turns away from my sunnat
is not with me." Apprehending that this
event might put an end to our personal
dealings, I had to lie to him, saying that I
lacked sexual power. Thus I ensured the
continuance of our acquaintance and
When my two-year stay in Istanbul was over,
I told "Ahmed Efendi" I wanted to go back
home. He said, "No, don't go. Why are you
going? You can find anything you might look
for in Istanbul. Allaahu ta'aalaa has given
both the religion and the world at the same
time in this city. You say that your parents
are dead and you have no brothers or
sisters. Why don't you settle down in
Istanbul?..." "Ahmed Efendi" had formed a
compulsive dependence upon my company. For
this reason he did not want to part company
with me and insisted that I should make my
home in Istanbul. But my patriotic sense of
duty compelled me to go back to London, to
deliver a detailed report concerning the
center of the caliphate, and to take new
Throughout my stay in Istanbul I sent
reports of my observations monthly to the
Ministry of Colonies. I remember asking in
one of my reports what I was to do should
the person I was working for ask me to
practice sodomy with him. The reply was: You
can do it if it will help you attain your
goal. I was very much indignant over this
answer. I felt as if the whole world had
fallen down on my head. I already knew that
this vicious deed was very common in
England. Yet it had never occurred to me
that my superiors would command me to commit
it. What could I do? I had no other way than
to empty the drug to the dregs. So I kept
quiet and went on with my duty.
As I said farewell to "Ahmed Efendi", his
eyes became wet and he said to me, "My son!
May Allaahu ta'aalaa be with you! If you
should come back to Istanbul and see that I
am dead, remember me. Say the (soora)
Faatiha for my soul! We will meet on the
Judgement Day in front of 'Rasoolullah'."
Indeed, I felt very sad, too; so much so
that I shed warm tears. However, my sense of
duty was naturally stronger.
My friends had returned to London before I
did and they had already received new
commands from the Ministry. I, too, was
given new commands upon returning.
Unfortunately, only six of us were back.
One of the other four people, the secretary
said, had become a Muslim and remained in
Egypt. Yet the secretary was still glad
because, he said, he (the person who had
remained in Egypt) had not betrayed any
secrets. The second one had gone to Russia
and remained there. He was Russian in
origin. The secretary was very sorry about
him, not because he had gone back to his
homeland, but because perhaps he had been
spying on the Ministry of Colonies for
Russia and had gone back home because his
mission had been over. The third one, as the
secretary related, had died of plague in a
town named "Imara" in the neighborhood of
Baghdaad. The fourth person had been traced
by the Ministry up to the city of San'aa in
the Yemen and they had received his reports
for one year, and thereafter his reporting
had come to an end and no trail of him had
been found despite all sorts of efforts. The
Ministry put down the disappearance of these
four men as a catastrophe. For we are a
nation with great duties versus a small
population. We therefore do very fine
calculations on every man.
After a few of my reports, the secretary
held a meeting to scrutinize the reports
given by four of us. When my friends
submitted their reports pertaining to their
tasks, I, too, submitted my report. They
took some notes from my report. The
Minister, the secretary, and some of those
who attended the meeting praised my work.
Nevertheless I was the third best. The first
grade was won by my friend "George
Belcoude", and "Henry Fanse" was the second
I had doubtlessly been greatly successful in
learning Turkish and Arabic languages, the
Qur'aan and the Sharee'at. Yet I had not
managed to prepare for the Ministry a report
revealing the weak aspects of the Ottoman
Empire. After the two-hour meeting, the
secretary asked me the reason for my
failure. I said, "My essential duty was to
learn languages and the Qur'aan and the
Sharee'at. I could not spare time for
anything in addition. But I shall please you
this time if you trust me." The secretary
said I was certainly successful but he
wished I had won the first grade. (And he
"O Hempher, your next mission comprises
these two tasks:
1- To discover Muslims' weak points and the
points through which we can enter their
bodies and disjoin their limbs. Indeed, this
is the way to beat the enemy.
2- The moment you have detected these points
and done what I have told you to, [in other
words, when you manage to sow discord among
Muslims and set them at loggerheads with one
another], you will be the most successful
agent and earn a medal from the Ministry."
I stayed in London for six months. I married
my paternal first cousin, "Maria Shvay". At
that time I was 22 years old, and she was
23. "Maria Shvay was a very pretty girl,
with average intelligence and an ordinary
cultural background. The happiest and the
most cheerful days of my life were those
that I spent with her. My wife was pregnant.
We were expecting our new guest, when I
received the message containing the order
that I should leave for Iraq.
Receiving this order at a time while I was
awaiting the birth of my son made me sad.
However, the importance I attached to my
country, doubled with my ambition to attain
fame by being chosen the best one among my
colleagues, was above my emotions as a
husband and as a father. So I accepted the
task without hesitation. My wife wanted me
to postpone the mission till after the
child's birth. Yet I ignored what she said.
We were both weeping as we said farewell to
each other. My wife said, "Don't stop
writing to me! I shall write you letters
about our new home, which is as valuable as
gold." These words of hers stirred up storms
in my heart. I almost cancelled the travel.
Yet I managed to take control of my
emotions. Extending my farewell to her, I
left for the ministry to receive the final
Six months later I found myself in the city
of Basra, Iraq. The city people were partly
Sunnite and partly Shiite. Basra was a city
of tribes with a mixed population of Arabs,
Persians and a relatively small number of
Christians. It was the first time in my life
that I met with the Persians. By the way,
let me touch upon Shi'ism and Sunnism.
Shiites say that they follow 'Alee bin Aboo
Taalib, who was the husband of Muhammad's
'alaihis-salaam' daughter Faatima and at the
same time Muhammad's 'alaihis-salaam'
paternal first cousin. They say that
Muhammad 'alaihis-salaam' appointed Alee,
and the twelve imaams, 'Alee's descendants
to succeed him as the Khaleefa.
In my opinion, the Shi'ees are right in the
matter pertaining to the caliphate of 'Alee,
Hasan, and Huseyn. For, as far as I
understand from the Islamic history, Alee
was a person with the distinguished and high
qualifications required for caliphate. Nor
do I find it alien for Muhammad
'alaihis-salaam' to have appointed Hasan and
Huseyn as Khaleefas. What makes me suspect,
however, is Muhammad's 'alaihis-salaam'
having appointed Huseyn's son and eight of
his grandsons as Khaleefas. For Huseyn was a
child at Muhammad's 'alaihis-salaam' death.
How did he know he would have eight
grandsons. If Muhammad 'alaihis-salaam' was
really a Prophet, it was possible for him to
know the future by being informed by Allaahu
ta'aalaa, as the Messiah had divined about
the future. Yet Muhammad's 'alaihis-salaam'
Prophethood is a matter of doubt to us
Muslims say that "There are many proofs for
Muhammad's 'alaihis-salaam' Prophethood. One
of them is the Qur'aan (Koran)." I have read
the Qur'aan. Indeed, it is a very high book.
It is even higher than the Torah (Taurah)
and the Bible. For it contains principles,
regulations, moral rules, etc.
It has been a wonder to me how an illiterate
person such as Muhammad 'alaihis-salaam'
could have brought such a lofty book, and
how could he have had all those moral,
intellectual and personal qualifications
which could not be possessed even by a man
who has read and travelled very much. I
wonder if these facts were the proofs for
Muhammad's 'alaihis-salaam' Prophethood?
I always made observations and research in
order to elicit the truth about Muhammad's
'alaihis-salaam' Prophethood. Once I brought
out my interest to a priest in London. His
answer was fanatical and obdurate, and was
not convincing at all. I asked Ahmed Efendi
several times when I was in Turkey, yet I
did not receive a satisfactory answer from
him, either. To tell the truth, I avoided
asking Ahmed Efendi questions directly
related to the matter lest they should
become suspicious about my espionage.
I think very much of Muhammad
'alaihis-salaam'. No doubt, he is one of
Allah's Prophets about whom we have read in
books. Yet, being a Christian, I have not
believed in his Prophethood yet. It is
doubtless that he was very much superior to
The Sunnites, on the other hand, say that
"After the Prophet's passing away, Muslims
considered Aboo Bekr and 'Umar and 'Uthmaan
and 'Alee suitable for the caliphate."
Controversies of this sort exist in all
religions, most abundantly in Christianity.
Since both 'Umar and 'Alee are dead today,
maintaining these controversies would serve
no useful purpose. To me, if Muslims are
reasonable, they should think of today, not
of those very old days(3)*.
One day in the Ministry of Colonies I made a
reference to the difference between the
Sunnites and the Shiites, saying, "If
Muslims knew something about life, they
would resolve this Shiite-Sunnite difference
among themselves and come together." Someone
interrupted me and remonstrated, "Your duty
is to provoke this difference, not to think
of how to bring Muslims together."
Before I set out for my travel to Iraq, the
secretary said, "O Hempher, you should know
that there has been natural differences
among human beings since God created Abel
and Cain. These controversies shall continue
until the return of the Messiah. So is the
case with racial, tribal, territorial,
national, and religious controversies.
"Your duty this time is to diagnose these
controversies well and to report to the
ministry. The more successful you are in
aggravating the differences among Muslims
the greater will be your service to England.
"We, the English people, have to make
mischief and arouse schism in all our
colonies in order that we may live in
welfare and luxury. Only by means of such
instigations will we be able to demolish the
Ottoman Empire. Otherwise, how could a
nation with a small population bring another
nation with a greater population under its
sway? Look for the mouth of the chasm with
all your might, and get in as soon as you
find it. You should know that the Ottoman
and Iranian Empires have reached the nadir
of their lives. Therefore, your first duty
is to instigate the people against the
administration! History has shown that 'The
source of all sorts of revolutions is public
rebellions.' When the unity of Muslims is
broken and the common sympathy among them is
impaired, their forces will be dissolved and
thus we shall easily destroy them."
When I arrived in Basra, I settled in a
mosque. The imaam of the mosque was a
Sunnite person of Arabic origin named Shaikh
'Umar Taaee. When I met him I began to chat
with him. Yet he suspected me at the very
beginning and subjected me to a shower of
questions. I managed to survive this
dangerous chat as follows: "I am from
Turkey's Igdir region. I was a disciple of
Ahmed Efendi of Istanbul. I worked for a
carpenter named Khaali (Haalid)." I gave him
some information about Turkey, which I had
acquired during my stay there. Also, I said
a few sentences in Turkish. The imaam made
an eye signal to one of the people there and
asked him if I spoke Turkish correctly. The
answer was positive. Having convinced the
imaam, I was very happy. Yet I was wrong.
For a few days later, I saw to my
disappointment that the imaam suspected that
I was a Turkish spy. Afterwards, I found out
that there was some disagreement and
hostility between him and the governor
appointed by the (Ottoman) Sultan.
Having been compelled to leave Shaikh 'Umar
Efendi's mosque, I rented a room in an inn
for travellers and foreigners and moved
there. The owner of the inn was an idiot
named Murshid Efendi. Every morning he would
disturb me by knocking hard at my door to
wake me up as soon as the adhaan for morning
prayer was called. I had to obey him. So I
would get up and perform the morning prayer.
Then he would say, "You shall read
Qur'aan-al kereem after morning prayer."
When I told him that it was not fard (an act
commanded by Islam) to read Qur'aan
al-kereem and asked him why he should insist
so much, he would answer, "Sleeping at this
time of day will bring poverty and
misfortune to the inn and the inmates." I
had to carry out this command of his. For he
said otherwise he would send me out of the
inn. Therefore, as soon as the adhaan was
called, I would perform morning prayer and
then read Qur'aan al-kereem for one hour.
One day Murshid Efendi came to me and said,
"Since you rented this room misfortunes have
been befalling me. I put it down to your
ominousness. For you are single. Being
single (unmarried) portends ill omen. You
shall either get married or leave the inn."
I told him I did not have property enough to
get married. I could not tell him what I had
told Ahmed Efendi. For Murshid Efendi was
the kind of person who would undress me and
examine my genitals to see whether I was
telling the truth.
When I said so, Murshid Efendi reproved me,
saying, "What a weak belief you have!
Haven't you read Allah's aayat purporting,
If they are poor, Allaahu ta'aalaa will make
them rich with His kindness'?" I was
stupefied. At last I said, "All right, I
shall get married. But are you ready to
provide the necessary money? Or can you find
a girl who will cost me little?"
After reflecting for a while, Murshid Efendi
said, "I don't care! Either get married by
the beginning of Rajab month, or leave the
inn." There were only twenty-five days
before the beginning of the month of Rajab.
Incidentally, let me mention the Arabic
months; Muharram, Safar, Rabi'ul-awwal,
Jemaaziy-ul-aakhir, Rajab, Sha'baan,
Ramadaan, Shawwaal, Zilqa'da, Zilhijja.
Their months are neither more than thirty
days, nor below twenty-nine. They are based
on lunar calculations.
Taking a job as an assistant to a carpenter,
I left Murshid Efendi's inn. We made an
agreement on a very low wage, but my lodging
and food were to be at the employer's
expense. I moved my belongings to the
carpenter's shop well before the month of
Rajab. The carpenter was a manly person. He
treated me as if I were his son. He was a
Shiite from Khorassan, Iran, and his name
was Abd-ur- Ridaa. Taking the advantage of
his company, I began to learn Persian. Every
afternoon Iranian Shiites would meet at his
place and talk on various subjects from
politics to economy. Most often than not
they would speak ill of their own government
and also of the Khaleefa in Istanbul.
Whenever a stranger came in they would
change the subject and begin to talk on
They trusted me very much. However, as I
found out later on, they though I was an
Azerbaijani because I spoke Turkish.
From time to time a young man would call at
our carpenter's shop. His attirement was
that of a student doing scientific research,
and he understood Arabic, Persian, and
Turkish. His name was Muhammad bin
Abd-ul-wahhaab Najdee. This youngster was an
extremely rude and very nervous person.
While abusing the Ottoman government very
much, he would never speak ill of the
Iranian government. The common ground which
made him and the shop-owner Abd-ur-Ridaa so
friendly was that both were inimical towards
the Khaleefa in Istanbul. But how was it
possible that this young man, who was a
Sunnee, understood Persian and was friends
with Abd-ur-Ridaa, who was a Shi'ee? In this
city Sunnites pretended to be friendly and
even brotherly with Shiites. Most of the
city's inhabitants understood both Arabic
and Persian. And most people understood
Turkish as well.
Muhammad of Najd was a Sunnee outwardly.
Although most Sunnites censured Shiites, in
fact, they say that Shiites are disbelievers
this man never would revile Shiites.
According to Muhammad of Najd, there was no
reason for Sunnites to adapt themselves to
one of the four madh-habs; he would say,
"Allah's Book does not contain any evidence
pertaining to these madh-habs." He
purposefully ignored the aayet-i-kereemas in
this subject and slighted the
Concerning the matter of four madh-habs: A
century after the death of their Prophet
Muhammad 'alaihis- salaam', four scholars
came forward from among Sunnite Muslims:
Aboo Haneefa, Ahmad bin Hanbal, Maalik bin
Anas, and Muhammad bin Idris Shaafi'ee. Some
Khaleefas forced the Sunnites to imitate one
of these four scholars. They said no one
except these four scholars could do ijtihaad
in Qur'aan al-kereem or in the Sunna. This
movement closed the gates of knowledge and
understanding to Muslims. This prohibition
of ijtihaad is considered to have been the
reason for Islam's standstill.
Shiites exploited these erroneous statements
to promulgate their sect. The number of
Shiites was smaller than one-tenth that of
Sunnites. But now they have increased and
become equal with Sunnites in number. This
result is natural. For ijtihaad is like a
weapon. It will improve Islam's fiqh and
renovate the understanding of Qur'aan
al-kereem and Sunna. Prohibition of
ijtihaad, on the other hand, is like a
rotten weapon. It will confine the madh-hab
within a certain framework. And this, in its
turn, means to close the gates of inference
and to disregard the time's requirements. If
your weapon is rotten and your enemy is
perfect, you are doomed to be beaten by your
enemy sooner or later. I think, the clever
ones of the Sunnites will reopen the gate of
ijtihaad in future. If they do not do this,
they will become the minority and the
Shiites will receive a majority in a few
[However, the imaams (leaders) of the four
madh-habs hold the same creed, the same
belief. There is no difference among them.
Their difference is only in worships. And
this, in turn, is a facility for Muslims.
The Shiites, on the other hand, parted into
twelve sects, thus becoming a rotten weapon.
There is detailed information in this
respect in the book Milal wa Nihal].
The arrogant youngster, Muhammad of Najd,
would follow his nafs (his sensuous desires)
in understanding the Qur'aan and the Sunna.
He would completely ignore the views of
scholars, not only those of the scholars of
his time and the leaders of the four
madh-habs, but also those of the notable
Sahaabees such as Aboo Bakr and 'Umar.
Whenever he came across a Koranic (Qur'aan)
verse which he thought was contradictory
with the views of those people, he would
say, "The Prophet said: I have left the
Qur'aan and the Sunna for you.' He did not
say, I have left the Qur'aan, the Sunna, the
Sahaaba, and the imaams of madh-habs for
you.' Therefore, the thing which is fard is
to follow the Qur'aan and the Sunna no
matter how contrary they may seem to be to
the views of the madh-habs or to the
statements of the Sahaaba and scholars."
During a dinner conversation at
Abd-ur-Ridaa's place, the following dispute
took place between Muhammad of Najd and a
guest from Kum, a Shiite scholar named
Shaikh Jawad. Since you accept that 'Alee
was a mujtahid, why don't you follow him
Muhammad of Najd Alee is no different from
'Umar or other Sahaabees. His statements
cannot be of a documentary capacity. Only
the Qur'aan and the Sunna are authentic
documents. [The fact is that statements made
by any of the As-haab-i kiraam are of a
documentary capacity. Our Prophet commanded
us to follow any one of them].
Shaikh Jawaad Since our Prophet said, "I am
the city of knowledge, and 'Alee is its
gate," shouldn't there be difference between
'Alee and the other Sahaaba?
Muhammad of Najd, If 'Alee's statements were
of a documentary capacity, would not the
Prophet have said, "I have left you the
Qur'aan, the Sunna, and 'Alee"?
Shaikh Jawaad Yes, we can assume that he
(the Prophet) said so. For the stated in a
hadeeth-i-shereef, "I leave (behind me)
Allah's Book and my Ahl-i-Bayt." And 'Alee,
in his turn, is the greatest member of the
Muhammad of Najd denied that the Prophet had
Shaikh Jawaad confuted Muhammad of Najd with
However, Muhammad of Najd objected to this
and said, "You assert that the Prophet said,
I leave you Allah's Book and my Ahl-i-Bayt."
Then, what has become of the Prophet's
Shaikh Jawad. The Sunna of the Messenger of
Allah is the explanation of the Qur'aan. The
Messenger of Allah said, "I leave (you)
Allah's Book and my Ahl-i-Bayt." The phrase
'Allah's Book' includes the 'Sunna', which
is an explanation of the former.
Muhammad of Najd. Inasmuch as the statements
of the Ahl-i-Bayt are the explanations of
the Qur'aan, why should it be necessary to
explain it by hadeeths?
Shaikh Jawaad When hadrat Prophet passed
away, his Ummat (Muslims) considered that
there should be an explanation of the
Qur'aan which would satisfy the time's
requirements. It was for this reason that
hadrat Prophet commanded his Ummat to follow
the Qur'aan, which is the original, and his
Ahl-i-Bayt, who were to explain the Qur'aan
in a manner to satisfy the time's
I liked this dispute very much. Muhammad of
Najd was motionless in front of Shaikh
Jawaad, like a house-sparrow in the hands of
Muhammad of Najd was the sort I had been
looking for. For his scorn for the time's
scholars, his slighting even the (earliest)
four Khaleefas, his having an independent
view in understanding the Qur'aan and the
Sunna were his most vulnerable points to
hunt and obtain him. So different this
conceited youngster was from that Ahmed
Efendi who had taught me in Istanbul! That
scholar, like his predecessors, was
reminiscent of a mountain. No power would be
able to move him. Whenever he mentioned the
name of Aboo Haneefa, he would stand up, go
and make ablution. Whenever he meant to hold
the book of Hadeeth named Bukhaaree, he
would, again, make ablution. The Sunnees
trust this book very much.
Muhammad of Najd, on the other hand,
disdained Aboo Haneefa very much. He would
say, "I know better than Aboo Haneefa did."
In addition, according to him, half of the
book of Bukhaaree was wrong.
[As I was translating these confessions of
Hempher's into Turkish, I remembered the
following event: I was a teacher in a high
school. During a lesson one of my students
asked, "Sir, if a Muslim is killed in a war,
will he become a martyr?" "Yes, he will," I
said. "Did the Prophet say so?" "Yes, he
did." "Will he become a martyr if he is
drowned in sea, too?" "Yes," was my answer.
"And in this case he will attain more
thawaab." Then he asked, "Will he become a
martyr if he falls down from an aeroplane?"
"Yes, he will," I said. "Did our Prophet
state these, too?" "Yes, he did." Upon this,
he smiled in a triumphant air and said,
"Sir! Were there aeroplanes in those days?"
My answer to him was as follows: "My son!
Our Prophet has ninety-nine names. Each of
his names stands for a beautiful attribute
he was endowed with. One of his names is
Jaami'ul-kalim. He would state many facts in
one word. For example, he said, 'He who
falls from a height will become a martyr.' "
The child admitted this answer of mine with
admiration and gratitude. By the same token,
Qur'aan al-kereem and hadeeth-i-shereefs
contain many words, rules, commandments and
prohibitions each of which denotes various
other meanings. The scientific work carried
on to explore these meanings and to apply
the right ones to the right cases, is called
Ijtihaad. Performing ijtihaad requires
having profound knowledge. For this reason,
the Sunnees prohibited ignorant people from
doing ijtihaad. This does not mean to
prohibit ijtihaad. After the fourth century
of the Hegiral Era, no scholars were
educated so highly as to reach the grade of
an absolute mujtahid [scholar profoundly
learned (enough to perform ijtihaad)];
therefore, no one performed ijtihad, which
in turn naturally meant the closure of the
gates of ijtihaad. Towards the end of the
world, Isaa (Jesus) 'alaihis-salaam' shall
descend from heaven and Mahdee (the expected
Islamic hero) shall appear; these people
shall perform ijtihaad.
Our Prophet 'sall-allaahu alaihi wa sallam'
stated, "After me Muslims shall part into
seventy-three groups. Only one of these
groups shall enter Paradise." When he was
asked who were to be in that group, he
answered, "Those who adapt themselves to me
and my Ashaab." In another hadeeth-i-shereef
he stated, "My As-haab are like celestial
stars. You will attain hidaayat if you
follow any one of them!" In other words, he
said, "You will attain the way leading to
Paradise." A Jew of Yemen, Abdullah bin
Saba, by name, instigated hostility against
the As-haab among Muslims. Those ignorant
people who believed this Jew and bore enmity
against the As-haab were called Shi'ee
(Shiite). And people who obeyed the
hadeeth-shereefs, loved and followed the
As-haab-i-kiraam were called Sunnee
I established a very intimate friendship
with Muhammad bin Abd-ul-wahhaab of Najd. I
launched a campaign of praising him
everywhere. One day I said to him: "You are
greater than 'Umar and 'Alee. If the Prophet
were alive now, he would appoint you as his
Khaleefa instead of them. I expect that
Islam will be renovated and improved in your
hands. You are the only scholar who will
spread Islam all over the world."
Muhammad the son of Abd-ul-wahhaab and I
decided to make a new interpretation of the
Qur'aan; this new interpretation was to
reflect only our points of view and would be
entirely contrary to those explanations made
by the Sahaaba, by the imaams of madh-habs
and by the mufassirs (deeply learned
scholars specialized in the explanation of
the Qur'aan). We were reading the Qur'aan
and talking on some of the aayats. My
purpose in doing this was to mislead
Muhammad. After all, he was trying to
present himself as a revolutionist and would
therefore accept my views and ideas with
pleasure so that I should trust him all the
On one occasion I said to him, "Jihaad
(fighting, struggling for Islam) is not
He protested, "Why shouldn't it be despite
Allah's commandment, 'Make war against
I said, "Then why didn't the Prophet make
war against the munaafiqs despite Allah's
commandment, 'Make Jihaad against
unbelievers and munaafiqs." [On the other
hand, it is written in Mawaahibu ladunniyya
that twenty- seven Jihaads were performed
against unbelievers. Their swords are
exhibited in Istanbul's museums. Munaafiqs
would pretend to be Muslims. They would
perform namaaz with the Messenger of Allah
in the Masjeed-i- Nabawee during the days.
Rasoolullah 'sall-allaahu alaihi wasallam'
knew them. Yet he did not say, " You are a
munaafiq," to any of them. If he had made
war against them and killed them, people
would say, "Muhammad 'alaihis- salaam'
killed people who believed in him."
Therefore he made verbal Jihaad against
them. For Jihaad, which is fard, is
performed with one's body and/or with one's
property and/or with one's speech. The
aayat-i-kareema quoted above commands to
perform Jihaad against unbelievers. It does
not define the type of the Jihaad to be
performed. For Jihaad against unbelievers
must be performed by fighting, and Jihaad
against munaafiqs is to be performed by
preaching and advice. This aayat-i-kereema
covers these types of Jihaad].
He said, "The Prophet made Jihaad against
them with his speech."
I said, "Is the Jihaad which is fard
(commanded), the one which is to be done
with one's speech?"
He said, "Rasoolullah made war against the
I said, "The Prophet made war against the
unbelievers in order to defend himself. For
the unbelievers intended to kill him."
At another time I said to him, "Mut'a nikaah
He objected, "No, it is not."
I said, "Allah declares, In return for the
use you make of them, give them the mehr you
have decided upon'."
He said, "'Umar prohibited two examples of
mut'a practice existent in his time and said
he would punish anyone who practiced it."
I said, "You both say that you are superior
to 'Umar and follow him. In addition, 'Umar
said he prohibited it though he knew that
the Prophet had permitted it. Why do you
leave aside the Prophet's word and obey
He did not answer. I knew that he was
I sensed that Muhammad of Najd desired a
woman at that moment; he was single. I said
to him, "Come on, let us each get a woman by
mut'a nikaah. We will have a good time with
them. He accepted with a nod. This was a
great opportunity for me, so I promised to
find a woman for him to amuse himself. My
aim was to ally the timidity he had about
people. But he stated it a condition that
the matter be kept as a secret between us
and that the woman not even be told what his
name was. I hurriedly went to the Christian
women who had been sent forth by the
Ministry of Colonies with the task of
seducing the Muslim youth there. I explained
the matter to one of them. She accepted to
help, so I gave her the nickname Safiyya. I
took Muhammad of Najd to her house. Safiyya
was at home, alone. We made a one-week
marriage contract for Muhammad of Najd, who
gave the woman some gold in the name of
"Mehr." Thus we began to mislead Muhammad of
Najd, Safiyya from within, and I from
Muhammad of Najd was thoroughly in Safiyya's
hands now. Besides, he had tasted the
pleasure of disobeying the commandments of
the Sharee'at under the pretext of freedom
of ijtihaad and ideas.
The third day of the mut'a nikaah I had a
long dispute with him over that hard drinks
were not haraam (forbidden by Islam).
Although he quoted many aayats and hadeeths
showing that it was haraam to have hard
drinks, I cancelled all of them and finally
said, "It is a fact that Yezeed and the
Umayyad and Abbasid Khaleefas had hard
drinks. Were they all miscreant people and
you are the only adherent of the right way?
They doubtless knew the Qur'aan and the
Sunna better than you do. They inferred from
the Qur'aan and the Sunna that the hard
drink is makrooh, not haraam. Also, it is
written in Jewish and Christian books that
alcohol is mubaah (permitted). All religions
are Allah's commandments. In fact, according
to a narrative, 'Umar had hard drinks until
the revelation of the aayat, 'You have all
given it up, haven't you?" If it had been
haraam, the Prophet would have chastised
him. Since the Prophet did not punish him,
hard drink is halaal." [The fact is that
'Umar 'radiy-allaahu anh' used to take hard
drinks before they were made haraam. He
never drank after the prohibition was
declared. If some of the Umayyad and Abbasid
Khaleefas took alcoholic drinks, this would
not show that drinks with alcohol are
makrooh. It would show that they were
sinners, that they committed haraam. For the
aayat-i-kereema quoted by the spy, as well
as other aayat-i-kereemas and
hadeeth-i-shereefs, shows that drinks with
alcohol are haraam. It is stated in
Riyaad-un-naasiheen, "Formerly it was
permissible to drink wine. Hadrat 'Umar,
Sa'd ibni Waqqas, and some other Sahaabees
used to drink wine. Later the two hundred
and nineteenth aayat of Baqara soora was
revealed to declare that it was a grave sin.
Sometime later the forty-second aayat of
Nisaa soora was revealed and it was
declared, 'Do not approach the namaaz when
you are drunk!'" Eventually, the
ninety-third aayat of Maaida soora came and
wine was made haraam. It was stated as
follows in hadeeth-i- shereefs: "If
something would intoxicate in case it were
taken in a large amount, it is haraam to
take it even in a small amount." and "Wine
is the gravest of sins." and "Do not make
friends with a person who drinks wine! Do
not attend his funeral (when he dies)! Do
not form a matrimonial relationship with
him!" and "Drinking wine is like worshipping
idols." and "May Allaahu ta'aalaa curse him
who drinks wine, sells it, makes it, or
gives it."] ***
Muhammad of Najd said, "According to some
narratives, 'Umar drank alcoholic spirits
after mixing it with water and said it was
not haraam unless it had an intoxicating
effect. 'Umar's view is correct, for it is
declared in the Qur'aan, 'The devil wants to
stir up enmity and grudge among you and to
keep you from doing dhikr of Allah and from
namaaz by means of drinks and gambling. You
will give these up now, won't you?'
Alcoholic spirits will not cause the sins
defined in the aayat when it does not
intoxicate. Therefore, hard drinks are not
haraam when they don't have an intoxicating
I told Safiyya about this dispute we had on
drinks and instructed her to make him drink
a very strong spirit. Afterwards, she said,
"I did as you said and made him drink. He
danced and united with me several times that
night." From them on Safiyya and I
completely took control of Muhammad of Najd.
In our farewell talk the Minister of
Colonies had said to me, "We captured Spain
from the disbelievers [he means Muslims] by
means of alcohol and fornication. Let us
take all our lands back by using these two
great forces again." Now I know how true a
statement it was.
One day I broached the topic of fasting to
Muhammad of Najd: "It is stated in the
Qur'aan, 'Your fasting is more auspicious
for you.' It is not stated that fasting is
fard (a plain commandment). Then, fasting is
sunna, not fard, in the Islamic religion."
He protested and said, "Are you trying to
lead me out of my faith?" I replied, "One's
faith consists of the purity of one's heart,
the salvation of one's soul, and not
committing a transgression against others'
rights. Did not the Prophet state, 'Faith is
love'? Did not Allah declare in Qur'aan
al-kereem, 'Worship thine Rab (Allah) until
yaqeen comes to thee? Then, when one has
attained yaqeen pertaining to Allah and the
Day of Judgement and beautified one's heart
and purified one's deeds, one will become
the most virtuous of mankind." He shook his
head in reply to these words of mine.
Once I said to him, "Namaaz is not fard."
"How is it not fard?" "Allah declares in the
Qur'aan, 'Perform namaaz to remember Me.'
Then, the aim of namaaz is to remember
Allah. Therefore, you might as well remember
Allah without performing namaaz."
He said, "Yes. I have heard that some people
do dhikr of Allah instead of performing
namaaz.' I was very much pleased with this
statement of his. I tried hard to develop
this notion and capture his heart. Then I
noticed that he did not attach much
importance to namaaz and was performing it
quite sporadically. He was very negligent
especially with the morning prayer. For I
would keep him from going to bed by talking
with him until midnight. So he would be too
exhausted to get up for morning prayer.
I began to pull down the shawl of belief
slowly off the shoulders of Muhammad of
Najd. One day I wanted to dispute with him
about the Prophet, too. "From now on, if you
talk with me on these topics, our relation
will be spoilt and I shall put an end to my
friendship with you." Upon this I gave up
speaking about the Prophet for fear of
ruining all my endeavors once and for all.
I advised him to pursue a course quite
different from those of Sunnites and
Shiites. He favored this idea of mine. For
he was a conceited person. Thanks to Safiyya,
I put an halter on him.
On one occasion I said, "I have heard that
the Prophet made his As-haab brothers to one
another. Is it true?" Upon his positive
reply, I wanted to know if this Islamic rule
was temporary or permanent. He explained,
"It is permanent. For the Prophet Muhammad's
halaal is halaal till the end of the world,
and his haraam is haraam till the end of the
world." Then I offered him to be my brother.
So we were brothers.
From that day on I never left him alone. We
were together even in his travels. He was
very important for me. For the tree that I
had planted and grown, spending the most
valuable days of my youth, was now beginning
to yield its fruit.
I was sending monthly reports to the
Ministry of Colonies in London. The answers
I received were very encouraging and
reassuring. Muhammad of Najd was following
the path I had drawn for him.
My duty was to imbue him with feelings of
independence, freedom and skepticism. I
always praised him, saying that a brilliant
future was awaiting him.
One day I fabricated the following dream:
"Last night I dreamed of our Prophet. I
addressed him with the attributes I had
learnt from hodjas. He was seated on a dais.
Around him were scholars that I did not
know. You entered. Your face was as bright
as haloes. You walked towards the Prophet,
and when you were close enough the Prophet
stood up and kissed between your both eyes.
He said, 'You are my namesake, the heir to
my knowledge, my deputy in worldly and
religious matters.' You said, 'O Messenger
of Allah! I am afraid to explain my
knowledge to people.' 'You are the greatest.
Don't be afraid,' replied the Prophet."
Muhammad bin Abd-ul-Wahhaab was wild with
joy when he heard the dream. He asked
several times if what I had told him was
true, and received a positive answer each
time he asked. Finally he was sure I had
told him the truth. I think, from then on,
he was resolved to publicize the ideas I had
imbued him with and to establish a new sect.
It was on one of those days when Muhammad of Najd and I
had become very intimate friends that I received a
message from London ordering me to leave for the cities
of Kerbelaa and Najaf, the two most popular Shiite
centers of knowledge and spirituality. So I had to put
an end to my company with Muhammad of Najd and leave
Basra. Yet I was happy because I was sure that this
ignorant and morally depraved man was going to establish
a new sect, which in turn would demolish Islam from
within, and that I was the composer of the heretical
tenets of this new sect.
'Alee, the fourth Khaleefa of the Sunnites, and the
first one according to the Shiites, was buried in Najaf.
The city of Koofa, which was a distance of one fersah
(league), i.e., an hour's walk from Najaf, was the
capital of 'Alee's caliphate. When 'Alee was killed, his
sons Hasan and Huseyn buried him outside Koofa at a
place called Najaf today. In the course of time, Najaf
began to grow, while Koofa gradually fell into decay.
The Shiite men of religion came together in Najaf.
Houses, markets, madrasas (Islamic schools and
universities) were built.
The Khaleefa in Istanbul was kind and generous to them
for the following reasons:
1- The Shiite administration in Iran was supporting the
Shiites. The Khaleefa's interfering with them would
cause tension between the states, which in turn could
lead to warfare.
2- The inhabitants of Najaf included a number of armed
tribes supporting the Shiites. Although they did not
have much significance in terms of weaponry and
organization, it would be unwise for the Khaleefa to run
the risk of getting into trouble with them.
3- The Shiites in Najaf had authority over the Shiites
all over the world, particularly those in Africa and
India. If the Khaleefa disturbed them, all the Shiites
would rise against him.
Huseyn bin 'Alee, the Prophet's grandson, i.e., his
daughter Faatima's son, was martyred in Kerbelaa. The
people of Iraq had sent for Huseyn in Medina and invited
him to Iraq to elect him their Khaleefa. Huseyn and his
family were in the territory called Kerbelaa when the
Iraqis gave up their former intention and, acting upon
the order given by Yazeed bin Muaawiya, the Umayyad
Khaleefa living in Damascus, set out with the intention
of arresting him. Huseyn and his family put up a heroic
last-ditch fight against the Iraqi army. The battle
ended in their death, so the Iraqi army was the winning
side. Since that day, the Shiites have accepted Kerbelaa
as their spiritual center, so that Shiites from all over
the world come here and form such a huge crowd that our
religion of Christianity does not have a likeness to it.
Kerbelaa, a Shiite city, contains Shiite madrasas. This
city and Najaf support each other. Upon receiving the
order to go to these two cities, I left Basra for
Baghdad, and thence to a city named 'Hulla' situated
alongside the Euphrates.
The Tigris and Euphrates come from Turkey, cut through
Iraq, and flow into the Persian Gulf. Iraq's agriculture
and welfare are due to these two rivers.
When I was back in London, I proposed to the Ministry of
Colonies that a project could be drawn up to change the
beds of these two rivers in order to make Iraq accept
our proposals. When the water was cut off, Iraq would
have to satisfy our demands.
From Hulla to Najaf I travelled in the guise of an
Azerbaijani tradesman. Establishing close friendships
with Shiite men of religion, I began to mislead them. I
joined their circles of religious instruction. I saw
that they did not study science like the Sunnites, nor
did they have the beautiful moral qualities possessed by
the Sunnites. For example:
1- They were extremely inimical towards the Ottoman
State. For they were Shiites and the Turks were
Sunnites. They said that the Sunnites were disbelievers.
2- The Shiite scholars were entirely absorbed in
religious teachings and had very little interest in
worldly knowledge, as was the case with priests during
the period of standstill in our history.
3- They were quite unaware of Islam's inner essence and
sublime character, nor did they have the smallest notion
of the time's scientific and technical improvements.
I said to myself: What a wretched sort of people these
Shiites are. They are sound asleep when the whole world
is awake. One day a flood will come and take them all
away. Several times I attempted to entice them to revolt
against the Khaleefa. Unfortunately, no one would even
listen to me. Some of them laughed at me as though I had
told them to destroy the earth. For they looked on the
Khaleefa as a fortress impossible to capture. According
to them, they would get rid of the caliphate with the
advent of the promised Mahdi.
According to them, Mahdi was their twelfth imaam, who
was a descendant of Islam's Prophet and who disappeared
in the Hijree year 255. They believed he was still alive
and would one day reappear and rescue the world from
this state of utter cruelty and injustice, filling it
It is consternating! How come these Shiite people
believe in these superstitions! It was like the
superstitious doctrine, "Jesus Christ will come back and
fill the world with justice," held by our Christians.
One day I said to one of them: "Isn't it fard for you to
prevent injustice like the Islamic Prophet did?" His
reply was: "He managed to prevent injustice because
Allah helped him." When I said, "It is written in the
Qur'aan, If you help Allah's religion, He will help you
in return.' "If you revolt against the torture of your
shaahs, Allah will help you" He answered, "You are a
tradesman. These are scientific matters. You cannot
The mausoleum of Alee the Emeer-ul-mu'mineen was
profusely decorated. It had a splendid yard, a
gold-covered dome, and two tall minarets. Every day
great numbers of Shiites visited this mausoleum. They
performed namaaz in jamaa'at in it. Every visitor first
stooped in front of the threshold, kissed it, and then
greeted the grave. They asked for permission and then
entered. The mausoleum had a vast yard, which contained
numerous rooms for men of religion and visitors.
There were two mausoleums similar to that of 'Alee's in
Kerbelaa. One of them belonged to Huseyn and the other
belonged his brother Abbaas, who had been martyred with
him in Kerbelaa. In Kerbelaa the Shiites repeated the
same practices as they did in Najaf. The climate of
Kerbelaa was better than that of Najaf. It was
surrounded with graceful orchards and lovely brooks.
During my mission to Iraq I met with a scene that gave
relief to my heart. Some events heralded the end of the
Ottoman Empire. For one thing, the governor appointed by
the administration in Istanbul was an uneducated and
cruel person. He acted as he wished. The people did not
like him. The Sunnites were uneasy because the governor
restricted their freedom and did not value them, and the
Shiites felt indignant over being governed by a Turk
while among them there were sayyeds and shareefs, the
Prophet's descendants, who would have been a much better
choice for governorship.
The Shiites were in an utterly woebegone situation. They
lived in squalid and dilapidated environments. The roads
were not safe. Highwaymen always awaited caravans, and
attacked whenever they saw that there were no soldiers
escorting them. For this reason, convoys would not set
out unless the government would appoint a detachment to
The Shiite tribes were mostly warlike with one another.
They killed and plundered one another daily. Ignorance
and illiteracy were dreadfully widespread. This state of
the Shiites reminded me of the time when Europe had been
under an ecclesiastical invasion. With the exclusion of
the religious leaders living in Najaf and Kerbelaa and a
small minority, who were their votaries, not even one
out of every thousand Shiites knew how to read or write.
The economy had collapsed entirely, and the people were
suffering utter poverty. The administrative system was
quite out of order. The Shiites committed treasons
against the government.
The State and the people viewed each other with
suspicion. As a result, there was no mutual aid between
them. The Shiite religious leaders, totally given to
vituperating the Sunnites, had already relinquished
knowledge; business, religious and worldly alike.
I stayed in Kerbelaa and in Najaf for four months. I
suffered a very serious illness in Najaf. I felt so bad
that I completely gave up hope of recovery. My illness
lasted three weeks. I went to a doctor. He gave me a
prescription. Using the medicine, I began to recover.
Throughout my illness I stayed in an underground room.
Because I was ill, my host prepared my medicine and food
in return for an insignificant sum of money and expected
great thawaab for serving me. For I was, so to speak, a
visitor of 'Alee the Emeer-ul-mu'mineen. The doctor
advised me to have only chicken broth during the first
few days. Later on he permitted me to eat chicken as
well. The third week I had rice soup. After becoming
well again I left for Baghdad. I prepared a report of
one hundred pages on my observations in Najaf, Hulla,
and Baghdad and while on the way. I submitted the report
to the Baghdad representative of the Ministry of
Colonies. I waited for the Ministry's order on whether I
should remain in Iraq or return to London.
I wished to go back to London. For I had been abroad for
a long time. I missed my homeland and my family.
Especially, I wanted to see my son Rasputin, who had
been born after my departure. For this reason, I
appended to my report a petition for permission to
return to London for a short time at least. I wanted to
give an oral report of impressions about my three years'
mission in Iraq and to get some rest in the meantime.
The Iraq representative of the Ministry advised me not
to call on him often lest I should arouse suspicion. He
also advised to rent a room in one of the inns alongside
the Tigris River, and said, "I shall inform you of the
Ministry's answer when we receive the mail from London."
During my stay in Baghdad I observed the spiritual
distance between Istanbul, the capital of the caliphate,
When I left Basra for Kerbelaa and Najaf, I was very
much anxious that Muhammad of Najd would swerve from the
direction I had led him. For he was an extremely
unstable and nervous person. I feared that the aims I
had built upon him might be spoilt.
As I left him he was thinking of going to Istanbul. I
did my best to dissuade him from the notion. I said, "I
am very anxious that when you go there you may make a
statement whereby they will pronounce you a heretic and
My apprehension was quite the other way round. I was
anxious that upon going there he should meet profound
scholars capable of setting his fallacies right and
converting him to the Sunnee creed and thus all my
dreams should come to naught. For there was knowledge
and Islam's beautiful morality in Istanbul.
When I found out that Muhammad of Najd did not want to
stay in Basra, I recommended that he go to Isfahan and
Sheeraaz. For these two cities were lovely. And their
inhabitants were Shiites. And Shiites, in their turn,
could not possibly influence Muhammad of Najd. For
Shiites were inefficient in knowledge and ethics. Thus I
made it certain that he would not change the course I
had charted for him.
As we parted I said to him, "Do you believe in Taqiyya?"
"Yes, I do," he replied. "The unbelievers arrested one
of the Sahaaba and tormented him and killed his parents.
Upon this he made Taqiyya, that is, he said openly that
he was a polytheist. (When he came back and said what
had happened), the Prophet did not reproach him at all."
I advised him, "When you live among the Shiites, make
Taqiyya; do not tell them that you are Sunnee lest they
become a nuisance for you. Utilize their country and
scholars! Learn their customs and traditions. For they
are ignorant and stubborn people."
As I left, I gave him some money as zakaat. Zakaat is an
Islamic tax collected in order to be dealt out to the
needy people. In addition, I gave him a saddled animal
as a present. So we parted.
After my departure I lost contact with him. This made me
utterly uneasy. When we parted we decided that both of
us were to return to Basra and whichever party was back
first and did not find the other party was to write a
letter and leave it with Abd-ur-Reedaa.
I stayed in Baghdad for a time. Then, receiving the
message ordering me to return to London, I left. In
London, I talked with the secretary and some officials
of the Ministry. I told them of my activities and
observations during my long mission. They rejoiced
greatly at the information I gave about Iraq and said
that they were pleased. On the other hand, Safiyya, the
girl friend of Muhammad of Najd, sent a report agreeing
with mine. I found out also that throughout my mission I
had been followed by men from the Ministry. These men
also sent reports concurrent with the reports I had sent
and with the account I had given to the secretary.
The secretary made an appointment for me to meet the
Minister. When I visited the Minister, he met me in a
manner that he had not shown towards me upon my arrival
from Istanbul. I knew that I occupied an exceptional
place in his heart now.
The minister was very pleased to know that I had
obtained Muhammad of Najd. "He is a weapon our Ministry
has been looking for. Give him all sorts of promises. It
would be worth while if you spent all your time
indoctrinating him," he said. When I said, "I have been
anxious about Muhammad of Najd. He may have changed his
mind," he replied, "Don't worry. He has not given up the
ideas he had when you left him. The spies of our
Ministry met him in Isfahan and reported to our Ministry
that he had not changed." I said to myself, "How could
Muhammad of Najd reveal his secrets to a stranger?" I
did not dare to ask this question to the Minister.
However, when I met Muhammad of Najd later, I found out
that in Isfahan a man named Abd-ul-kereem had met him
and ferreted out his secrets by saying, "I am Shaikh
Muhammad's [meaning me] brother. He told me all that he
knew about you."
Muhammad of Najd said to me, "Safiyya went with me to
Isfahan and we cohabited with mut'a nikaah for two more
months. Abd-ul-kereem accompanied me to Sheeraaz and
found me a woman named Asiya, who was prettier and more
attractive than Safiyya. Making mut'a nikaah with that
woman, I spent the most delightful moments of my life
I found out later that Abd-ul-kereem was a Christian
agent living in the Jelfa district of Isfahan and
working for the Ministry. And Asiya, a Jewess living in
Sheeraaz, was another agent for the Ministry. All four
of us coordinated to train Muhammad of Najd in such a
way that in future he would do what was excepted from
him in the best way.
When I related the events in the presence of the
Minister, the secretary, and two other members of the
Ministry whom I did not know, the Minister said to me,
"You have deserved to receive the greatest award of the
Ministry. For you are the best one among the most
significant agents of the ministry. The secretary will
tell you some State secrets, which will help you in your
Then they gave me a ten-day leave during which I could
see my family. So I went home right away and spent some
of my sweetest moments with my son, who resembled me
very much. My son spoke a few words, and walked so
elegantly that I felt as if he were a piece from my own
body. I spent this ten-day leave so cheerfully, so
happily. I felt as if I were going to fly from joy. It
was such a great pleasure to be back home, to be with my
family. During this ten-day leave I visited my old
paternal aunt, who loved me very much. It was wise of me
to visit my paternal aunt. For she passed away after my
departure for my third mission. I felt so sad about her
This ten-day leave elapsed as fast as an hour. Whereas
cheerful days such as these go by as quickly as an hour,
days of grief seem to take centuries. I remembered the
days when I had suffered that illness in Najaf. Those
days of affliction had seemed like years to me.
When I went to the Ministry to receive new orders, I met
the secretary with this cheerful face and tall stature.
He shook my hand so warmly that his affection was
perceptible. He said to me, "With the command of our
minister and the committee in charge of Colonies, I
shall tell you two State secrets. Later you will benefit
very much from these two secrets. No one except a couple
of confidential people know these two secrets."
Holding my hand, he took me to a room in the Ministry. I
met with something very attractive in this room. Ten men
were sitting around a round table. The first man was in
the guise of the Ottoman Emperor. He spoke Turkish and
English. The second one was dressed in the attire of the
Shaikh-ul-islaam (Chief of Islamic Matters) in Istanbul.
The third one was dressed in an attirement identical
with that of the Shah of Iran. The fourth one was in the
attire of the vizier in the Iranian palace. The fifth
one was dressed like the great scholar leading the
Shiites in Najaf. The last three of these people spoke
Persian and English. Each of these five people had a
clerk sitting beside him to write down whatever they
would say. These clerks were imparting to the five men
the information collected by spies about their
archetypes in Istanbul, Iran, and Najaf.
The secretary said, "These five people represent the
five people there. In order to know what their
archetypes think, we have educated and trained these
people exactly like their archetypes. We intimate the
information we have obtained about their originals in
Istanbul, Teheran and Najaf to these men. And these men,
in their turn, imagine themselves to be their originals
in those places. Then we ask them and they answer us. We
have determined that the answers given by these people
are seventy-percent agreeable with the answers that
their originals would give.
"If you like, you may ask questions for assessment. You
have already met the scholar of Najaf." I replied in the
affirmative, for I had met the great Shiite scholar in
Najaf and asked him about some matters. Now I approached
his copy and said, "Dear teacher, would it be
permissible for us to wage war against the government
because it is Sunnee and fanatical?" He reflected for a
while, and said, "No, it is not permissible for us to
wage war against the government because it is Sunnee.
For all Muslims are brothers. We could declare war on
them (Sunnite Muslims) only if they perpetrated cruelty
and persecution on the Ummat (Muslims). And even in this
case we would observe the principles of
Amr-i-bi-l-ma'roof and Nahy-i-ani-l-munkar. We would
stop interfering with them as soon as they stopped their
I said, "Dear teacher, may I have your opinion
concerning the matter that Jews and Christians are
foul?" "Yes, they are foul," he said. "It is necessary
to keep away from them." When I asked the reason why, he
replied, "It is done so in retaliation for an insult.
For they look on us as disbelievers and deny our Prophet
Muhammad 'alaihis-salaam'. We therefore retaliate for
this." I said to him, "Dear teacher, isn't cleanliness
an issue of eemaan? Despite this fact, the avenues and
streets around the Sahn-i-shareef [the area surrounding
hadrat 'Alee's mausoleum] are not clean. Even the
madrasas, which are the places of knowledge, cannot be
said to be clean." He replied, "Yes, it is true;
cleanliness is from eemaan. Yet it cannot be helped
because the Shiites are negligent over cleanliness."
The answers given by this man in the Ministry were
precisely concurrent with the answers I had received
from the Shiite scholar in Najaf. Such accurate identity
between this man and the scholar in Najaf amazed me
utterly. In addition, this man spoke Persian.
The secretary said, "If you had met the archetypes of
the other four personages, you would talk to their
imitations now and see how identical they are with their
originals." When I said, "I know how the
Shaikh-ul-islaam thinks. For Ahmad Efendi, my hodja in
Istanbul, gave a detailed description of the
Shaikh-ul-islaam to me," the secretary said, "Then you
can go ahead and talk with his model."
I went near the Shaikh-ul-islaam's model and said to
him, "Is it fard to obey the Khaleefa?" "Yes, it is
waajib," he replied. "It is waajib, as it is fard to
obey Allah and the Prophet." When I asked what evidence
he had to prove this, he answered, "Didn't you hear
about Janaab-i-Allah's aayat, 'Obey Allah, His Prophet,
and the Ulul amr from among you'?" I said, "Does this
mean that Allah commands us to obey the Khaleefa Yazeed,
who permitted his army to plunder Medeena and who killed
our Prophet's grandson Huseyn, and Waleed who drank
alcoholic spirits?" His answer was this: "My son! Yazeed
was the Ameer-ul-mu'mineen with Allah's permission. He
did not command the killing of Huseyn. Do not believe in
the Shiite lies! Read the books well! He made a mistake.
Then he made tawba for this (he repented and begged for
Allah's forgiveness and mercy). He was right about his
ordering Medina-i-munawwara plundered. For the
inhabitants of Medina had become quite unbridled and
disobedient. As for Waleed; yes, he was a sinner. It is
waajib not to imitate the Khaleefa, but to obey his
commandments compatible with the Sharee'at." I had asked
these same questions to my hodja Ahmed Efendi and
received identical answers with slight differences. Then
I asked the secretary, "What are the ultimate reasons
for preparing these models?" He said, "With this method
we are assessing the mental capacities of the (Ottoman)
Sultan and the Muslim scholars, be they Shi'ee or
Sunnee. We are searching for the measures that will help
us cope with them. For instance, if you know what
direction the enemy forces will come from, you will make
preparations accordingly, post your forces at suitable
positions, and thus rout the enemy. On the other hand,
if you aren't sure about the direction of the enemy
assault you will spread your forces here and there in a
haphazard way and suffer a defeat. ... By the same
token, if you know the evidences Muslims will furnish to
prove that their faith, their madh-hab is right, it will
be possible for you to prepare the counter-evidences to
rebut their evidences and shock their belief with those
Then he gave me a book of one thousand pages containing
the results of the observations and projects carried out
by the aforenamed five representative men in areas such
as military, finance, education, and religion. He said,
"Please read this book and return it to us." I took the
book home with me. I read through it with utmost
attention during my three-week holiday.
The book was of a wonderful sort. For the important
answers and the delicate observations it contained
sounded genuine. I think that the answers given by the
representative five men were more than seventy percent
agreeable with the answers that their archetypes would
have given. Indeed, the secretary had said that the
answers were seventy percent correct.
Having read the book, I now had more confidence in my
State and I knew for certain that the plans for
demolishing the Ottoman Empire in time shorter than a
century had already been prepared. The secretary also
said, "In other similar rooms we have identical tables
intended for countries we have been colonizing as well
as for those we are planning to colonize." When I asked
the secretary where they found such diligent and
talented men, he replied, "Our agents all over the world
are providing us intelligence continuously. As you see,
these representatives are experts in their work.
Naturally, if you were furnished with all the
information possessed by a particular person, you would
be able to think like him and to make the decisions he
would make. For you would be his substitute now."
The secretary went on, "So this was the first secret I
was ordered by the Ministry to give you.
"I shall tell you the second secret a month later, when
you return the book of one thousand pages."
I read the book part by part from the beginning to the
end, focusing all my attention on it. It increased my
information about the Muhammadans. Now I knew how they
thought, what their weaknesses were, what made them
powerful, and how to transform their powerful qualities
into vulnerable spots.
Muslims' weak spots as recorded in the book were as
- The Sunnite-Shiite controversy; the
sovereign-people controversy; the Turkish-Iranian
controversy; the tribal controversy; and the
- With very few exceptions, Muslims are ignorant
- Lack of spirituality, knowledge, and conscience.
- They have completely ceased from worldly business
and are absorbed in matters pertaining to the
- The emperors are cruel dictators.
- The roads are unsafe, transportation and travels
- No precaution is taken against epidemics such as
plague and cholera, which kill tens of thousands of
people each year; hygiene is altogether ignored.
- The cities are in ruins, and there is no system
of supplying water.
- The administration is unable to cope with rebels
and insurgents, there is a general disorderliness,
rules of the Qur'aan, of which they are so proud,
are almost never put into practice.
- Economical collapse, poverty, and retrogression.
- There is not an orderly army, nor adequate
weaponry; and the weapons in stock are classical and
friable. [Are they unaware of the systematic army
established by Orhan Ghaazee, who ascended to the
(Ottoman) throne in 726 (C.E. 1326), Yildirim (The
Thunderbolt) Baayezeed Khan's immaculate army, which
routed the great army of crusaders in Nighbolu in
799 (C.E. 1399)?]
- Violation of women's right.
- Lack of environmental health and
After citing what was considered as Muslims' vulnerable
spots in the paragraphs paraphrased above, the book
advised to cause Muslims to remain oblivious of the
material and spiritual superiority of their faith,
Islam. Then, it gave the following information about
- Islam commands unity and cooperation and prohibits
disunion. It is stated in the Qur'aan, "Hold fast to
Allah's rope altogether."
- Islam commands being educated and being conscious. It
is stated in the Qur'aan, "Travel on the earth."
- Islam commands to acquire knowledge. It is stated in
a hadeeth, "Learning knowledge is fard for every Muslim,
male and female alike."
- Islam commands to work for
the world. It is stated in the Qur'aan, "Some of them: O
our Allah! Allot to us whatever is beautiful both in the
world and in the Hereafter."
- Islam commands consultation. It is stated in the Qur'aan, "Their deeds are (done) upon consultation among
- Islam commands to build roads. It is stated in the Qur'aan, "Walk on the earth."
- Islam commands Muslims to maintain their health. It
is stated in a hadeeth, "Knowledge is (made up) of four
(parts): 1) The knowledge of Fiqh for the maintenance of
faith; 2) The knowledge of Medicine for the maintenance
of health; 3) The knowledge of Sarf and Nahw (Arabic
grammar) for the maintenance of language; 4) The
knowledge of Astronomy so as to be aware of the times."
- Islam commands development. It is stated in the Qur'aan, "Allah created everything on the earth for
- Islam commands orderliness. It is stated in the Qur'aan, "Everything is based on calculations, orders."
- Islam commands to be strong economically. It is
stated in a hadeeth. "Work for your world as though you
would never die. And work for your hereafter as if you
were going to die tomorrow."
- Islam commands to establish an army equipped with
powerful weapons. It is stated in the Qur'aan, "Prepare
as many forces as you can against them."
- Islam commands to observe women's rights and to
value them. It is stated in the Qur'aan, "As men legally
have (rights) over women, so women have rights over
- Islam commands cleanliness. It is stated in a hadeeth, "Cleanliness is from eemaan."
The book recommended to degenerate and to impair the
following power sources:
- 1- Islam has negated racial, lingual, traditional,
conventional, and national bigotry.
- Interest, profiteering, fornication, alcoholic
spirits, and pork are forbidden.
- Muslims are firmly adherent to their 'Ulamaa
- Most of the Sunnee Muslims accept the Khaleefa as
the Prophet's representative. They believe that it
is fard to show him the same respect as must be
shown to Allah and the Prophet.
- Jihaad is fard.
- According to the Shee'ee Muslims, all non-Muslims
and Sunnee Muslims are foul people.
- All Muslims believe that Islam is the only true
- Most Muslims believe that it is fard to
expel the Jews and Christians from the Arab
- They perform their worships, (such as namaaz,
fast, hajj...), in the most beautiful way.
- The Shi'ee Muslims believe that it is haraam
(forbidden) to build churches in Muslim countries.
- Muslims hold fast to the principles of the
- The Shi'ee Muslims consider it fard to give
one-fifth of the Humus, i.e. booties taken in Holy
War, to the 'Ulamaa.
- Muslims raise their children with such education
that they are not likely to abandon the way followed
by their ancestors.
- Muslim women cover themselves so well that
mischief can by no means act on them.
- Muslims make namaaz in jamaa'at, which brings
them together five times daily.
- Because the Prophet's grave and those of Alee
and other pious Muslims are sacred according to
them, they assemble at these places.
- There are a number of people descending from the
Prophet, [who are called Sayyeds and Shereefs];
these people who remind of the Prophet and who keep
Him always remain alive in the eyes of Muslims.
- When Muslims assemble, preachers consolidate
their eemaan and motivate them to do pious acts.
- It is fard to perform Amr-i-bi-l-ma'roof
[Advising piety] and nahy-i-ani-l-munkar
[admonishing against wrongdoing].
- It is sunnat to marry more than one women in
order to contribute to the increase of Muslim
- Converting one person to Islam is more valuable
to a Muslim than possessing the whole world.
- The hadeeth, "If a person opens an auspicious way, he
will attain the thawaabs of people who follow that
way as well as the thawaab for having attained it,"
is well known among Muslims.
- Muslims hold the Qur'aan and hadeeths in very
profound reverence. They believe that obeying these
sources is the only way of attaining Paradise.
The book recommends to vitiate Muslims' staunch spots
and to popularize their weaknesses, and it prescribed
the methods for accomplishing this.
It advised the following steps for popularizing their
- Establish controversies by inducing animosity
among disputing groups, inoculating mistrust, and by
publishing literature to further incite
- Obstruct schooling and publications, and burn
literature whenever possible. Make sure that Muslim
children remain ignorant by casting various
aspersions on religious authorities and thus
preventing Muslim parents from sending their
children to religious schools. [This British method
has been very harmful to Islam].
- Praise Paradise in their presence and convince
them that they need not work for a worldly life.
Enlarge the circles of Tasawwuf. Keep them in an
unconscious state by encouraging them to read books
advising Zuhd, such as Ihyaa-ul-'uloom-id-deen, by
Ghazaalee, Mesnevee, by Mawlaanaa, and various books
written by Muhyiddeen Arabee.
- Wheedle the emperors into cruelty and
dictatorship by the following demagogic
falsifications: You are Allah's shadows on the
earth. In fact, Aboo Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthmaan, 'Alee,
Umayyads and Abbasids came to seize power by sheer
force and the sword, and each of them was a
sovereign. For example, Aboo Bakr assumed power with
the help of 'Umar's sword and by setting fire to the
houses of those who would not obey him, such as
Faatima's house. And 'Umar became Khaleefa upon Aboo
Bakr's commendation. 'Uthmaan, on the other hand,
became the president with 'Umar's order. As for
'Alee; he became head of the State by an election
held among bandits. Muaawiya assumed power by the
sword. Then, in the time of the Umayyads,
sovereignty was turned into an inheritance
transferred through paternal chain. So was the case
with the Abbasids. These are the evidences for the
fact that in Islam sovereignty is a form of
- Delete death penalty for homicide from the penal
code. [Death punishment is the only deterrent to
homicide and banditry. Anarchy and banditry cannot
be prevented without death penalty]. Hinder the
administration in punishing highwaymen and robbers.
Make sure that traveling is unsafe by supporting and
- We can make them lead an unhealthy life with the
following scheme: Everything is dependent on Allah's
foreordination. Medical treatment will have no role
in restoring health. Does not Allah say in the Qur'aan, "My Rab (Allah) makes me eat and drink. He
cures me when I am ill. He alone will kill me and
then resurrect me." Then, no one will recover from
an illness or escape death outside Allah's will.
- Make the following statements for encouraging
cruelty: Islam is a religion of worship. It has no
interest in State matters. Therefore, Muhammad and
his Khaleefas did not have any ministers or laws.
- Economic decline is a natural consequence of the
injurious activities advised so far. We can add to
the atrophy by rotting the crops, sinking the trade
ships, setting fire to the market places, destroying
dams and barrages and thus leaving agricultural
areas and industrial centers under water, and
finally by contaminating their networks of drinking
- Accustom statesmen to such indulgences as [sex,
sports,] alcohol, gambling, corruption which cause
sedition and intriguing, and spending the State
property for their personal advantages. Encourage
the civil servants to do things of this sort and
reward those who serve us in this way. Then the book
added the following advice: The British spies
assigned this duty must be protected secretly or
openly, and no expense must be spared to rescue the
ones arrested by Muslims.
- Popularize all sorts of interest. For interest
not only ruins national economy, but also accustoms
Muslims to disobeying the Koranic rules. Once a
person has violated one article of law, it will be
easy for him to violate the other articles, too.
They must be told that "interest is haraam when in
multiples, for it is stated in the Qur'aan, 'Do not
receive interest in multiples.'Therefore, not every
form of interest is haraam." [The pay-off time of a
loan must not be appointed in advance. Any extra
payment agreed on (at the time of lending) is
interest. This type of interest is a grave sin, be
the extra payment stipulated worth only a dirham. If
it is stipulated that the same amount (borrowed)
must be repaid after a certain time, this is
interest according to the Hanafee madh-hab. In sales
on credit, time of repayment must be appointed; yet
if the debtor cannot pay off at the appointed time
and the time is protracted and an extra payment is
stipulated, this kind of interest is called
Mudaa'af. The aayat-i-kareema quoted above states
this type of interest in trade].
- Spread false
charges of atrocity against scholars, cast sordid
aspersions against them and thus alienate Muslims
from them. We shall disguise some of our spies as
them. Then we shall have them commit squalid deeds.
Thus they will be confused with scholars and every
scholar will be looked upon with suspicion. It is a
must to infiltrate these spies into Al-Az-har,
Istanbul, Najaf, and Kerbelaa. We shall open
schools, colleges for estranging Muslims from
scholars. In these schools we shall educate
Byzantine, Greek and Armenian children and bring
them up as the enemies of Muslims. As for Muslim
children; we shall imbue them with the conviction
that their ancestors were ignorant people. In order
to make these children hostile towards Khaleefas,
scholars, and statesmen, we shall tell them about
their errors and convince them that they were busy
with their sensuous pleasures, that Khaleefas spent
their time having fun with concubines, that they
misused the people's property, that they did not
obey the Prophet in anything they did.
- In order to spread the calumniation that Islam
abhors womankind, we shall quote the aayat, "Men are
dominant over women," and the hadeeth, "The woman is
an evil altogether."
- Dirtiness is the result of lack of water.
Therefore, we must deter the increasing of the water
supplies under various schemes.
The book advised the following steps for destroying
- Induce such chauvinistic devotions as racism and
nationalism among Muslims so as to retract their
attention towards their pre-Islamic heroisms.
Rejuvenate the Pharaoh period in Egypt, the Magi
period in Iran, the Babylonian period in Iraq, the
Attila and Dzengiz era[tyrannisms] in the Ottomans.
[They contained a long list on this subject].
- The following vices must be done secretly or
publicly: Alcoholic spirits, gambling, fornication,
pork, [and fights among sports clubs.] In doing
this, Christians, Jews, Magians, and other
non-Muslims living in Muslim countries should be
utilized to a maximum, and those who work for this
purpose should be awarded high salaries by the
treasury department of the Ministry of the
- Sow suspicion among them concerning Jihaad;
convince them that Jihaad was a temporary
commandment and that it has been outdated.
- Dispel the notion that "disbelievers are foul"
from the hearts of Shiites. Quote the Koranic verse,
"As the food of those given a (heavenly) Book is
halaal for you, so is your food halaal for them,"
and tell them that the Prophet had a Jewish wife
named Safiyya and a Christian wife named Maariya and
that the Prophet's wives were not foul at all.
- Imbue Muslims with the belief that "what the Prophet
meant by Islam' was 'a perfect religion' and
therefore this religion could be Judaism or
Christianity as well as Islam." Substantiate this
with the following reasoning: The Qur'aan gives the
name 'Muslim' to members of all religions. For
instance, it quotes the Prophet Joseph (Yoosuf
'alaihis-salaam') as having invoked, "Kill me as a
Muslim," and the Prophets Ibraaheem and Ismaa'eel as
having prayed, "O our Rab (Allah)! Make us Muslims
for Yourself and make a Muslim people for Yourself
from among our offspring,"and the Prophet Ya'qoob as
having said to his sons, "Die only and only as
- Repeat frequently that it is not haraam to build
churches, that the Prophet and his Khaleefas did not
demolish them, that on the contrary they respected
them, that the Qur'aan states, "If Allah had not
dispelled some people by means of others,
monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques
wherein Allah's name is mentioned very much would
have been annihilated (by now)," that Islam respects
temples, that it does not demolish them, and that it
prevents those who would otherwise demolish them.
- Confuse Muslims about the hadeeths, "Deport the
Jews from the Arabic Peninsula," and, "Two religions
cannot coexist on the Arabic peninsula." Say that
"If these two hadeeths were true, the Prophet would
not have had a Jew wife and a Christian one. Nor
would he have made an agreement with the Najran
- Try to hamper Muslims in their worships and make
them falter about the usefulness of worships by
saying that "Allah does not need men's worships."
Prevent them from their worship of Hajj as well as
from any sort of worship that will bring them
together. Likewise, try to obstruct construction of
mosques, mausoleums and madrasas and the restoration
- Mystify the Shiites about the rule that one-fifth
of the ghaneema property taken from the enemy in
combat is to be given to the 'Ulamaa and explain
that this one-fifth belongs to the ghaneema property
taken from (Daar-ul-harb) and that it has nothing to
do with commercial earnings. Then add that "Humus
(the one-fifth mentioned above) is to be given to
the Prophet or to the Khaleefa, not to the 'Ulamaa.
For the 'Ulamaa are given houses, palaces, animals,
and orchards. Therefore, it is not permissible to
give them the (Humus)."
- Insert heresies into
Muslims' creedal tenets and then criticize Islam for
being a religion of terror. Assert that Muslim
countries are retrogressive and that they have
undergone shocks, thus impairing their adherence to
Islam. [On the other hand, Muslims established the
greatest and the most civilized empire of the world.
They declined as their adherence to Islam
- Very important! Alienate children from their
fathers, thus depriving them of their elders'
education. We shall educate them. Consequently, the
moment children have parted from their fathers'
education, there will no longer be any possibility
for them to maintain contact with their belief,
faith, or religious scholars.
- Provoke the womenfolk to get rid of their
traditional covers. Fabricate such falsifications as
"Covering is not a genuine Islamic commandment. It
is a tradition established in the time of the
Abbasids. Formerly, other people would see the
Prophet's wives and women would join all sorts of
social activities." After stripping the woman of her
traditional cover, tempt the youth towards her and
cause indecencies between them! This is a very
effective method for annihilating Islam. First use
non-Muslim women for this purpose. In the course of
time the Muslim woman will automatically degenerate
and will begin to follow their example.
- Exploit every opportunity to put an end to
performing namaaz in jamaa'at by casting aspersions
on the imaams in mosques, by revealing their
mistakes, and by sowing discord and adversity
between them and the jamaa'ats (groups of Muslims)
who perform their daily prayers of namaaz behind
- Say that all mausoleums must be demolished to
the ground, that they did not exist in the Prophet's
time. In addition, deter Muslims from visiting the
graves of Prophets, Khaleefas and pious Muslims by
arising doubts about visiting graves. For instance
say, "The Prophet was buried by his mother and Aboo
Bekr and 'Umar were buried in the cemetery called
Baakee'.'Uthmaan's grave is unknown. Huseyn's head
was buried at (a place called) Hannana. It is not
known where his body was buried. The graves in
Kaazimiyya belong to two caliphs. They do not belong
to Kaazim and Jawaad, two descendants of the
Prophet. As to the one in Tus (city); that grave
belongs to Haarun, not to Ridaa, a member of the
Ahl-i-Bayt (the Prophet's Family). The graves in
Samerra belong to the Abbasids. They do not belong
to Haadee, Askeree, and Mahdee, members of the
Ahl-i-Bayt. As it is fard to demolish all the
mausoleums and domes in Muslim countries, so is it a
must to bulldoze the cemetery called Baakee'."
- Make people feel skeptical about the fact that Sayyeds are the Prophet's descendants. Mix Sayyeds
with other people by making non-Sayyeds wear black
and green turbans. Thus people will be perplexed in
this matter and will consequently begin to distrust
Sayyeds. Strip religious authorities and Sayyeds of
their turbans so that the Prophetic pedigree will be
lost and religious authorities will not be respected
- Say that it is fard to demolish the
places where Shiites mourn, that this practice is a
heresy and aberration. People should be prevented
from visiting those places, the number of preachers
should be decreased and taxes should be levied on
preachers and owners of the places for mourning.
- Under the pretext of love of freedom, convince
all Muslims that "Everyone is free to do whatever he
likes. It is not fard to perform Amr-i-bi-l-ma'roof
and Nahy-i-anil-munkar or to teach the Islamic
principles." [On the contrary, it is fard to learn
and teach Islam. It is a Muslim's first duty]. In
addition, imbue them with this conviction:
"Christians are to remain in their own faith
(Christianity) and Jews are to abide by theirs
(Judaism). No one will enter another person's heart.
Amr-i-ma'roof and Nahy-i-anil-munkar are the
- In order to impede Muslims from increasing in
number, births must be limited and polygamy must be
prohibited. Marriage must be subjected to
restrictions. For instance, it must be said that an
Arab cannot marry an Iranian, an Iranian cannot
marry an Arab, a Turk cannot marry an Arab.
- Make sure to stop Islamic propagations and
conversions to Islam. Broadcast the conception that
Islam is a religion peculiar to the Arabs only. As
an evidence for this, put forward the Qur'aanic
verse which reads, "This is a Dhikr for thee and
- Pious institutions must be restricted and
confined to the State monopoly, to the extent that
individuals must be unable to establish madrasas or
other similar pious institutions. 21- Arouse doubts
as to the authenticity of the Qur'aan in Muslims'
minds; publish Koranic translations containing
excisions, additions, and interpolations, and then
say, "The Qur'aan has been defiled. Its copies are
incongruous. A verse one of them contains does not
exist in another." Excise the verses insulting Jews,
Christians and all other non-Muslims and those
commanding Jihaad, Amr-i-bi-l-ma'roof and
Nahy-i-anil munkar.Translate the Qur'aan into other
languages such as Turkish, Persian, Indian, thus to
prevent Arabic from being learned and read outside
Arabic countries, and again, prevent the (Ad-haan),
(Namaaz), and (Duaa) from being done in Arabic
outside Arabic countries.
Likewise, Muslims will be made to feel doubts about
hadeeths. The translations, criticisms and
interpolations planned for the Qur'aan should be applied
to hadeeths as well.
When I read through the book, which was entitled How Can
We Demolish Islam, I found it really excellent. It was a
peerless guide for the studies I was going to carry on.
When I returned the book to the secretary and told him
that it afforded me great pleasure to read it, he said,
"You can be sure that you are not alone in this field.
We have lots of men doing the same job as you have been
carrying on. Our Ministry has assigned over five
thousand men to this mission. The Ministry is
considering increasing this number to one hundred
thousand. When we reach this number we shall have
brought all Muslims under our sway and obtained all
Sometime later the secretary said: "Good news to you!
Our Ministry needs one century at the most to realize
this program. We may not live to see those happy days,
but our children will. What a beautiful saying this is:
I have eaten what others sowed. So I am sowing for
others.' When the British manage this they will have
pleased the whole Christian world and will have rescued
them from a twelve-century-old nuisance."
The secretary went on as follows: "The crusading
expeditions which continued for centuries were of no
use. Nor can the Mongols [armies of Dzengiz] be said to
have done anything to extirpate Islam. For their work
was sudden, unsystematic, and ungrounded. They carried
on military expeditions so as to reveal their enmity.
Consequently, they became tired in a short time. But now
our valuable administrators are trying to demolish Islam
by means of a very subtle plan and a long-range
patience. We must use military force, too. Yet this
should be the final phase, that is, after we have
completely consumed Islam, after we have hammered it
from all directions and rendered it into a miserable
state from which it will never recover again and fight
against us." The secretary's final words were these:
"Our superiors in Istanbul must have been very wise and
intelligent. They executed our plan precisely. What did
they do? They mixed with the Muhammadans and opened
madrasas for their children. They built churches. They
were perfectly successful in popularizing alcoholic
spirits, gambling, indecencies, and breaking them into
groups by means of instigation [and football clubs.]
They aroused doubts in the minds of young Muslims. They
inserted controversies and oppositions into their
governments. They spread mischief everywhere. They
depraved administrators, directors, and statesmen by
filling their houses with Christian women. With
activities of this sort they broke their forces, shocked
their adherence to their faith, corrupted them morally,
and disrupted their unity and communication. Now the
time has come to commence a sudden war and extirpate
Having enjoyed the first secret, I was looking forward
to knowing the second secret. Eventually one day the
secretary explained the second secret he had promised.
The second secret was a fifty page scheme prepared for
the high ranking officials working in the Ministry for
annihilating Islam altogether within a century's time.
The scheme was comprised of fourteen articles. The
scheme was closely guarded for fear that it might be
obtained by Muslims. The following are the articles of
- We have to form a well-established alliance and
an agreement of mutual help with the Russian Tsar in
order to invade Bukhaara, Taajikistaan, Armenia,
Khorasan and its neighborhood. Again, a sound
agreement must be established with Russians in order
to invade their neighbor, Turkey.
- We must establish cooperation with France in
demolishing the Islamic world both from within and
- We must sow very ardent rows and controversies
between the Turkish and Iranian governments and
emphasize nationalistic and racist feelings in both
parties. In addition, all the Muslim tribes, nations
and countries neighboring one another must be set
against one another. All the religious sects,
including the extinct ones, must be recovered and
set against one another.
- Parts from Muslim countries must be handed over
to non-Muslim communities. For example, Medina must
be given to the Jews, Alexandria to the Christians, Imaara to the Saaiba, Kermanshah to the Nusayriya
group, who have divinized 'Alee, Mousul to the
Yazeedees, the Iranian gulf to Hindus, Tripoli to
the Druzis, Kars to the Alawees, and Masqat to the
Khaarijee group. The next step should be to arm
these groups so that each of them will be a thorn on
the body of Islam. Their areas must be widened till
Islam has collapsed and perished.
- A schedule must be concocted to divide the Muslim
and Ottoman States into, as small as possible, local
states that are always at loggerheads with one
another. An example of this is today's India. For
the following theory is common: "Break, and you will
dominate," and "Break, and you will destroy."
- It is necessary to adulterate Islam's essence by
adding interpolated religions and sects into it, and
this we must devise in such a subtle manner that the
religions we are to invent should be compatible with
the sensuous tastes and aspirations of the people
among whom we are going to spread them. We shall
invent four different religions in the Shiite
- A religion that divinizes hadrat Huseyn;
- A religion that divinizes Ja'fer Saadiq;
- A religion divinizing Mahdi;
- A religion divinizing Alee Ridaa. The first
one is suitable for Kerbelaa, the second one for
Isfahaan, the third one for Samarra, and the
fourth one for Khoraasaan. In the meantime, we
must degenerate the existing four Sunnite
madh-habs into four self-standing religions.
After doing this, we shall establish an
altogether new Islamic sect in Najd, and then
instigate bloody rows among all these groups. We
shall annihilate the books belonging to the four
madh-habs, so that each of these groups will
consider themselves to be the only Muslim group
and will look on the other groups as heretics
that are to be killed.
- Seeds of mischief and malice, such as
fornication, pederasty, alcoholic spirits and
gambling, will be scattered among Muslims.
Non-Muslims living in the countries concerned will
be used for this purpose. A tremendous army of
people of this sort is on requisition for the
realization of this goal. 8- We should spare no
effort to train and educate vicious leaders and
cruel commanders in Muslim countries, to bring them
into power and thus to pass laws prohibiting
obedience to the Sharee'at (religious injunctions).
We should put them to use, to the extent that they
should be subservient enough to do whatever the
Ministry (of the Commonwealth) asks them to do, and
vice versa. Through them we should be able to impose
our wishes on Muslims and Muslim countries by using
laws as an enforcement. We should establish a social
way of life, an atmosphere wherein obeying the
Shari'at will be looked on as a guilt and
worshipping as an act of regression. We should trick
Muslims into electing their leaders from among
non-Muslims. For doing this, we should disguise some
of our agents as Islamic authorities and bring them
into high positions so that they may execute our
- Do your best to prevent the learning of Arabic.
Popularize languages other than Arabic, such as
Persian, Kurdish, and Pushtu (Pashto). Resuscitate
foreign languages in the Arabic countries and
popularize the local dialects in order to annihilate
literary, eloquent Arabic, which is the language of
the Qur'aan and the Sunna.
- Placing our men around statesmen, we should
gradually make them secretaries of these statesmen
and through them we should carry out the desires of
the Ministry. The easiest way of doing this is the
slave trade: First of all we must adequately train
the spies we are to send forth in the guise of
slaves and concubines. Then we must sell them to the
close relatives of Muslim statesmen, for instance,
to their children or wives, or to other people liked
or respected by them. These slaves, after we have
sold them, will gradually approach the statesmen.
Becoming their mothers and governesses, they will
encircle Muslim statesmen like a bracelet girding a
- Missionary areas must be widened so as to
penetrate into all social classes and vocations,
especially into such professions as medicine,
engineering, and book-keeping. We must open centers
of propaganda and publication under such names as
churches, schools, hospitals, libraries and charity
institutions in the Islamic countries and spread
them far and near. We must distribute millions of
Christian book free of charge. We must publish the
Christian history and intergovernmental law
alongside the Islamic history. We must disguise our
spies as monks and nuns and place them in churches
and monasteries. We must use them as leaders of
Christian movements. These people will at the same
time detect all the movements and trends in the
Islamic world and report to us instantaneously. We
must institute an army of Christians who will, under
such names as 'professor', 'scientist', and
'researcher', distort and defile the Islamic
history, learn all the facts about Muslims' ways,
behavior, and religious principles, and then destroy
all their books and eradicate the Islamic teachings.
- We must confuse the minds of the Islamic youth,
boys and girls alike, and arouse doubts and
hesitations in their minds as to Islam. We must
completely strip them of their moral values by means
of schools, books, magazines [sports clubs,
publications, motion pictures, television], and our
own agents trained for this job. It is a
prerequisite to open clandestine societies to
educate and train Jewish, Christian and other
non-Muslim youngsters and use them as decoys to trap
the Muslim youngsters.
- Civil wars and insurrections must be provoked;
Muslims must always be struggling with one another
as well as against non-Muslims so that their
energies will be wasted and improvement and unity
will be impossible for them. Their mental dynamisms
and financial sources must be annihilated. Young and
active ones must be done away with. Their orders
must be rendered into terror and anarchy.
- Their economy must be razed in all areas, their
sources of income and agricultural areas must be
spoilt, their irrigation channels and lines must be
devastated and rivers dried up, the people must be
made to hate the performance of namaaz and working,
and sloth must be made as widespread as possible.
Playgrounds must be opened for lazy people.
Narcotics and alcoholic spirits must be made common.
[The articles we have cited above were explained very
clearly with such aids as maps, pictures and charts]. I
thanked the secretary for giving me a copy of this
After a month's stay in London, I received a message
from the Ministry ordering me to go to Iraq to see
Muhammad of Najd again. As I was leaving for my mission,
the secretary said to me, "Never be negligent about
Muhammad of Najd! As it is understood from the reports
sent by our spies up until now, Muhammad of Najd is a
typical fool very convenient for the realization of our
"Talk frankly with Muhammad of Najd. Our agents talked
with him frankly in Isfahaan, and he accepted our wishes
on terms. The terms he stipulated are: He would be
supported with adequate property and weaponry to protect
himself against states and scholars who would certainly
attack him upon his announcing his ideas and views. A
principality would be established in his country, be it
a small one. The Ministry accepted these terms."
I felt as if I were going to fly from joy when I heard
this news. I asked the secretary what I was supposed to
do about this. His reply was, "The Ministry has devised
a subtle scheme for Muhammad of Najd to carry out, as
"1- He is to declare all Muslims as disbelievers and
announce that it is halaal to kill them, to seize their
property, to violate their chastity, to make their men
slaves and their women concubines and to sell them at
"2- He is to state that Ka'ba is an idol and therefore
it must be demolished. In order to do away with the
worship of hajj, he is to provoke tribes to raid groups
of hadjis (Muslim pilgrims), to plunder their belongings
and to kill them.
"3- He is to strive to dissuade Muslims from obeying the
Khaleefa. He is to provoke them to revolt against him.
He is to prepare armies for this purpose. He is to
exploit every opportunity to spread the conviction that
it is necessary to fight against the notables of Hedjaz
and bring disgrace on them.
"4- He is to allege that the mausoleums, domes and
sacred places in Muslim countries are idols and
polytheistic milieus and must therefore be demolished.
He is to do his best to produce occasions for insulting
Prophet Muhammad, his Khaleefas, and all prominent
scholars of madh-habs.
"5- He is to do his utmost to encourage insurrections,
oppressions and anarchy in Muslim countries.
"6- He is to try to publish a copy of the Qur'aan
interpolated with additions and excisions, as is the
case with hadeeths."
After explaining this six-paragraph scheme, the
secretary added, "Do not panic at this huge programma.
For our duty is to sow the seeds for annihilating Islam.
There will come generations to complete this job. The
British government has formed it a habit to be patient
and to advance step by step. Wasn't Prophet Muhammad,
the performer of the great and bewildering Islamic
revolution, a human being after all? And this Muhammad
of Najd of ours has promised to accomplish this
revolution of ours like his Prophet."
A couple of days later, I took permission from the
Minister and the Secretary, bid farewell to my family
and friends, and set out for Basra. As I left home my
little son said, "Come back soon daddy!" My eyes became
wet. I could not conceal my sorrow from my wife. After a
tiresome journey I arrived in Basra at night. I went to
Abd-ur-Ridaa's home. He was asleep. He was very pleased
when he woke up and saw me. He offered me warm
hospitality. I spent the night there. The next morning
he said to me, "Muhammad of Najd called on me, left this
letter for you, and left." I opened the letter. He wrote
the was leaving for his country, Najd, and gave his
address there. I at once set out to go there, too. After
an extremely onerous journey I arrived there. I found
Muhammad of Najd in his home. He had lost a lot of
weight. I did not say anything this concerning this to
him. Afterwards, I learned that he had gotten married.
We decided between us that he was to tell other people
that I was his slave and was back from some place he had
sent me. He introduced me as such.
I stayed with Muhammad of Najd for two years. We made a
programma to announce his call. Eventually I fomented
his resolution in 1143 Hijri [A.D. 1730]. Hence by
collecting supporters around himself, he insinuated his
call by making covert statements to those who were very
close to him. Then, day by day, he expanded his call. I
put guards around him in order to protect him against
his enemies. I gave them as much property and money as
they wanted. Whenever the enemies of Muhammad of Najd
wanted to attack him, I inspirited and heartened them.
As his call spread wider, the number of his adversaries
increased. From time to time he attempted to give up his
call, especially when he was overwhelmed by the
multitude of the attacks made on him. Yet I never left
him alone and always encouraged him. I would say to him,
"O Muhammad, the Prophet suffered more persecution than
you have so far. You know, this is a way of honor. Like
any other revolutionist, you would have to endure some
Enemy attack was likely any moment. I therefore hired
spies on his adversaries. Whenever his enemies meant
harm to him, the spies would report to me and so I would
neutralize their harm. Once I was informed that the
enemies were to kill him. I immediately took the
precautions to thwart their preparations. When the
people (around Muhammad of Najd) heard about this plot
of their enemies, they began to hate them all the more.
They fell into the trap they had laid.
Muhammad of Najd promised me that he would implement all
the six articles of the scheme and added, "For the time
being I can execute them only partly." He was right in
this word of his. At that time it was impossible for him
to carry out all of them.
He found it impossible to have Ka'ba demolished. And he
gave up the idea of announcing that it (Ka'ba) is an
idol. In addition, he refused to publish an interpolated
copy of the Qur'aan. Most of his fears in this respect
were from the Shereefs in Mekka and the Istanbul
government. He told me that "If we made these two
announcements we would be attacked by a powerful army."
I accepted his excuse. For he was right. The conditions
were not favorable at all.
A couple of years later the Ministry of Commonwealth
managed to cajole Muhammad bin Su'ood, the Ameer of
Der'iyya, into joining our lines. They sent me a
messenger to inform me about this and to establish a
mutual affection and cooperation between the two
Muhammads. For earning Muslims' hearts and trusts, we
exploited our Muhammad of Najd religiously, and Muhammad
bin Su'ood politically. It is an historical fact that
states based on religion have lived longer and have been
more powerful and more imposing.
Thus we continuously became more and more powerful. We
made Der'iyya city our capital. And we named our new
religion the WAHHABI religion. The Ministry supported
and reinforced the Wahhaabee government in an
underhanded way. The new government bought eleven
British officers, very well learned in the Arabic
language and desert warfare, under the name of slaves.
We prepared our plans in cooperation with these
officers. Both Muhammads followed the way we showed
them. When we did not receive any orders from the
Ministry we made our own decisions.
We all married girls from tribes. We enjoyed the
pleasure of a Muslim wife's devotion to her husband.
Thus we had stronger relations with tribes. Everything
goes well now. Our centralization is becoming more and
more vigorous each day. Unless an unexpected catastrophe
takes place, we shall eat the fruit we have prepared.
For we have done whatever is necessary and sown the